When comparing between dolichocephalic
and mesocephalic, significant differences were observed in the lower lip to E-line (P<0.031), lower lip to S-line (P<0.010), the interincisal angle (P<0.032) and the mandibular's plane (P<0.001).
(36) This "racial system" was composed ofa Europoid dolichocephalic
Transcaspian race (the Turkmen), a Europoid brachycephalic race situated between the Ainu Darya and the Syr Darya (the Uzbeks, the Tajiks, a portion of the Karakalpaks), a Europoid dolichocephalic
Caspian race (the Azeris), and a Siberian race from the south of Semirech'e (the Kazakhs and Kirgiz).
In this way, Europeans could be divided into Nordics (tall and dolichocephalic
), Mediterraneans (short and dolichocephalic
), and Alpines (short and brachycephalic).
The calculation result of (hb x 100)/hl defined the cephalic index: dolichocephalic
(70.0 - 74.9), mesocephalic (75.0 - 79.9) and brachycephalic (80.0 - 84.9).
In addition, the dolichocephalic
skeletal pattern was observed, proclined upper and lower incisors, which leads to biprotrusion diagnosis and protrusion of lower lip turning soft tissue profile not suitable (Table 1).
All speech and hearing impaired children studied are dolichocephalic
. This is in contrast to the finding that normal children of 5-10 years of age are mesocephalic while those between 11-15 years of age are brachycephalic.
, or more narrow-headed, breeds consisted of Samoyeds, Siberian Huskies and Alaskan Malamutes.
Cranial measurements, moreover, revealed that a statistically significant proportion of Jews were brachycephalic (or round-headed), a trait usually equated with primitive European inhabitants rather than the more progressive dolichocephalic
(or long-headed) peoples.
The prevalence of the FV may be associated with the different skull shapes, described in the literature as a function of the cephalic index (CI), according to which skulls are classified as: dolichocephalic
, sub-dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, sub-brachycephalic and brachycephalic (Testut & Jacob, 1952).
Table 1 Head Shape Range of Cephalic Index (%) Dolichocephalic
Up to 74.9 Mesocephalic 75.0-79.9 Brachycephalic 80.0-84.9 Hyperbrachycephalic 85.0-89.9 Table 2: Cephalic Index in Different Endogamous Groups (Jat Sikhs, Banias, Majhbi Sikhs) n Mean Range Min Max S.D.
On basis of cephalic index head shapes are grouped in four international categories including dolichocephalic
, brachycephalic, mesocephalic and hyperbrachycephalic (Williams et al., 1995).