Vicine is a compound which is hydrolysed by intestinal microflora to high reactive free radical generating compound divicine .
These results can be attributed to the rapid uptake and hydrolysis of this glycoside by the intestinal microflora [9, 30], to highly reactivate free radical generating compound divicine which has been strongly suggested to be the causative agent in favism .
The mechanism of neomycin protection was based on the hypothesis that vicine was hydrolysed by intestinal microflora  to produce divicine, where neomycin produced morphological changes in intestinal microflora  to prevent the hydrolysis of vicine to its aglycone (divicine) which is the causative agent of favism (Vicia faba anemia).
, which demonstrated that neomycin reduced the rate at which vicine and convicine were hydrolysed in the gastrointestinal tract, and the neomycin reduced toxicity of both, while this study investigated that neomycin prevents the hydrolysis of vicine to its aglycone (divicine) and protects against the oxidative effect of vicine and this antioxidant effect of neomycin was confirmed by measuring hematological parameters, serum, and liver proteins and transaminases, in addition to liver histopathology and this can be useful in protection in case of favism and hemolytic anemia.
In the present study, the effect of neomycin on the anaerobic microflora which hydrolyses the vicine to its aglycon divicine and consequently the toxic and lethal effect was established.
Regarding the effect of the neomycin, the results showed increase in the hematological parameters in the rats pretreated by neomycin and this may be due to its bactericidal effect on the microorganisms which hydrolyzes vicine to its toxic aglycon divicine.
With respect to the rats pretreated by neomycin, the results showed an increase in WBCs count compared to control rats; this may be due to the decrease of hydrolysis of the glycoside to its toxic divicine .
The pretreatment with the antibiotic neomycin modulated the oxidative stress caused by injection of vicine was due to decrease its hydrolysis to its toxic aglycon divicine and the level of glucose increased to reach the normal range.
All the effects of vicine on GSH, TBARs, and G6-PD rendered to almost normal value in the group treated with neomycin which decreased the toxic effect of vicine by preventing its hydrolysis to its aglycon divicine .
Marquardt, "Favism-like effects of divicine and isouramil in the rat: acute and chronic effects on animal health, mortalities, blood parameters and ability to exchange respiratory gases," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.