disulfiram


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disulfiram

 [di-sul´fĭ-ram]
Antabuse; a compound that, when used in the presence of alcohol, produces distressing symptoms such as severe nausea and vomiting. It is a dangerous drug, should always be given under the supervision of a physician and is never given to a patient who is in a state of intoxication or does not have full knowledge of its effects. Disulfiram inhibits the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced by the metabolism of alcohol; the resultant accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body is what causes nausea, vomiting, palpitation, dyspnea, and lowered blood pressure. Occasionally this may lead to profound collapse.

di·sul·fi·ram

(dī-sŭl'fi-ram),
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism; when taken regularly in chronic alcoholism, it can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Also used as a chelator in copper and nickel poisoning.

disulfiram

(dī-sŭl′fə-răm′)
n.
A drug used in the treatment of alcoholism that interferes with the metabolic degradation of alcohol, producing an unpleasant reaction when even a small quantity of alcohol is consumed.

disulfiram

Antabuse® An antioxidant that interferes with alcohol metabolism, resulting in ↑ acetaldehyde concentrations; it is effective in treating alcoholism as it produces aversive symptoms if combined with alcohol

di·sul·fi·ram

(dī-sŭl'fi-ram)
An antioxidant that interferes with the normal metabolic degradation of alcohol in the body, resulting in increased acetaldehyde concentrations in blood and tissues. Used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism; when taken regularly in chronic alcoholism, it can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Also used as a chelator in copper and nickel poisoning.

disulfiram

A drug that interferes with the normal metabolism of alcohol so that a toxic substance, acetaldehyde, accumulates. This causes flushing, sweating, nausea, vomiting, faintness, headache, chest pain and sometimes convulsions and collapse. It is sometimes used to discourage drinking, but is not without danger. A brand name is Antabuse.
References in periodicals archive ?
Currently, disulfiram, tiagabine, topiramate, and modafinil are the most promising of the available treatments (Karila et al.
Taken without disulfiram, these foods did not alter the production of 5-HTOL as measured in urine.
The efficacy of disulfiram: a review of outcome studies.
TABLE Grade of recommendation based on the evidence Decreased Increased cravings at abstinence rates Agent 6 & 12 months at 6 & 12 months Naltrexone B B Nalmefene C C Serotonergics D D SSBIs D D Disulfiram C C Lithium D D Acamprosate B B Comorbidities: Decreased alcoholism with relapse rates at anxiety, depression, Agent 6 & 12 months or bipolar disorder Naltrexone B D Nalmefene B D Serotonergics D B SSBIs D B Disulfiram C D Lithium D B Acamprosate C D Based on the Oxford Center for Evidence based Medicine Levels of Evidence (May 2001).
Often adolescents are not willing to adhere to disulfiram because they are concerned about the aversive reaction with alcohol
* Disulfiram generally should not be used as first-line treatment.
"Medications such as naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram can easily be prescribed in primary care and do not require specific training" (JAMA.
Conversely, we have previously demonstrated the apoptotic effect of disulfiram (DSF) and Bax up-regulation after 24 hours of treatment without RASSF1A re-expression.
There is evidence of clinically important drug-drug interactions between cannabis or cannabinoids and the following medications: chlorpromazine, clobazam, clozapine, CNS depressants (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines), disulfiram, hexobarbital, hydrocortisone, ketoconazole, MAO inhibitors, phenytoin, protease inhibitors (indinavir, nelfinavir), theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants and warfarin.
Disulfiram inhibits the in vitro growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
(School of Pharmacy): "Mechanistic studies of disulfiram as an anti-MRSA drug"