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Spikelets with few-many glumes have spiral or distichous phyllotaxis (Fig.
0.8 cm wide, their stipes very short, brown-cream during anthesis (brown in dried specimens), lanceolate, subdense, with 12 to 14 lowers, distichous, complanate; rachis geniculate, quadrangular and exposed, totally covered by a ferrugineous indument; floral bracts ca.
(0) distichous, (1) spiral (helicoid; see Gonzalez, 1999b).
Taxa with a combination of hollow upright barbed epidermal spicules, curved hollow skeletal and upright spicules, and a distichous radula with denticulate hooks include Pruvotina, Pararrhopalia Simroth, 1893, Eleutheromenia Salvini-Plawen, 1967, Labidoherpia Salvini-Plawen, 1978, and Gephyroherpia Salvini-Plawen, 1978; they were divided into two subfamilies on the basis of salivary gland morphology (Salvini-Plawen, 1978).
Experiments are continuing especially in ascertaining some sort of ratio of seedlings that turn out to be either spirostichous or distichous leaved.
Leaves distichous; petiole 0.7-1.5 cm long, green to maroon, glabrous; proximal and distal blades of the same shape and size, ovate to ovate-elliptic, 5-8(-14) x 2-4 cm, fleshy, the base often slightly asymmetric, cuneate, the apex acute to acuminate, acumen to 1.5 cm long, the margins slightly serrulate, with 10-15 one-size class teeth on each side, each tooth with a distal callosity, the adaxial surface bright green suffused with maroon, glabrous, the abaxial surface green suffused with maroon or totally maroon, glabrous, the venation semicraspedodromous, with (6-)9 to twelve pairs of secondary veins, irregular spaced, excurrent to mid-vein, higher order veins slightly reticulated, submarginal vein absent.
Flowers distichous, anthesis nocturnal, with an odor, strongly downwardly secund at anthesis, densely to subdensely arranged, 65-70 mm long (not including the stamens), pedicels stout, 6-11 mm long, ca.
This character is shared with Marcgravia L., the only genus of subfamily Marcgravioideae, but Marcgraviastrum differs from this genus in having 5-merous flowers (4-merous in Marcgravia), petals free or variously connate (completely connate into a calyptra in Marcgravia), and leaves spirally arranged (distichous in Marcgravia).
series Binderiana Distichous axis, (Grunow) Tseng compressed to et Lu flattened.
This new species can be distinguished from all known taxa due to an unusual combination of morphological features, like the distichous arranged leaves, leaf blades distinctly nerved on both sides with margins sparsely spinose, inflorescence curved and short, flowers strongly fragrant, sepals acuminate and dark purplish-wine, petals yellow with an obtuse and apiculate to subacute apex, forming a tubular corolla, and by the anthers basaly connate and equaling the petals.
concinna is cespitose, with distichous leaves that have 32-45 linear to lanceolate pinnae per side, the pinna margins densely spiny.
During the vegetative stage, the terminal meristem produces leaves in a distichous phyllotaxis; once the floral induction has taken place, the inflorescence primary branches generally have a spiral arrangement (Bonnett, 1948; Weir & Dale, 1960; Moncur, 1981; Sundberg & Orr, 1996; Doust & Kellogg, 2002; Kellogg et al., 2004; Bess et al., 2005; Ikeda et al., 2005; Itoh et al., 2005; Reinheimer et al., 2005).