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In contrast to normal sodium chloride re-absorption, the reaction that occurs in the distal tubule also requires that hydrogen ions or potassium ions be secreted into the urine in exchange for the sodium.
The problem is further exacerbated because hypokalemia stimulates even more of sodium bicarbonate re-apbsorption in the distal tubule and worsening of the metabolic alkalosis.
Indeed, estrogens have been shown to enhance the thiazide effect in the distal tubule of ovariectomized rats (17).
Thiazide treatment of rats provokes apoptosis in distal tubule cells.
Na] may be implicated in the kaliuresis, as a decrement in sodium proximal reabsorption could stimulate potassium secretion at the distal tubules (Koeppen and Stanton, 1997).
Intratubular precipitation of exogenously administered medications or their metabolites is typically influenced by the degree of supersaturation within distal tubules (dependent on hydration and drug dosage) and urine pH.
As mentioned previously, LLC-PK1 cells are considered to be of proximal tubular origin where as MDCK cells are related to the distal tubules and collecting ducts (Gstraunthaler et al.
THIAZIDE DIURETICS Top choice for patients with reasonable renal function, Subclass works on kidneys' distal tubules.
Mitochondrial antibodies appeared as discrete granular staining, predominantly in the distal tubules of the kidney and in the parietal cells of the stomach.
Importantly, HIF stabilization in kidneys and mTAL from FG-4497 treated rats correlated with improved renal perfusate flow and less hypoxic injury to mTAL possibly due to cytoprotection of the distal tubules and improved epithelial and endothelial cell function.
In 21 normal renal tissues, Gal-3 was expressed in collecting ducts, intermediate thin ducts, and distal tubules (Figure 1, A).