Once again, the crisis of Fordism unveils a number of disproportions:
To keep it simple, we could say that the unequal relationship between the worker as a producer and the worker as a consumer as represented by the disproportion between necessary and superfluous labor, drives capital beyond its limits: its desire to suspend labor, that is, that which is the very source of its realization, and the desire to restrict its power, in other words, that very innovative capacity of knowledge, that which allowed capital to bloom.
the disproportion between necessary labour and surplus labour, between variable and fixed capital as intended within the framework of the growing organic composition of capital, appear as violent separations.
* a massive disproportion between the valorization of knowledge and the devalorization of the workforce, as well as between the old Fordist investment policies in welfare institutions and the new market demands;
The analysis of structural changes confirms that they are directed at development of sectors and productions which support the consumer and energy independence of the country, import replacement, prevention of one-sided raw material based economy, expansion of its export capacity, prevention of inter-industrial and regional disproportions. The priority is given to development of important base industries--oil and gas industry, energy, nonferrous metals, motor-car industry, chemicals, agriculture and other sectors of agro-industrial complex that work on the basis of domestic raw materials.
Another important direction of structural reform policy and achievement on this basis the balanced development of national economy is the elimination of regional disproportions. Through promotion of use of local resources and production capacities in regions, there were provided increase of produced goods assortment, improvement of their quality, reduction of unit costs in goods production.
Another concern is providing better distribution of the growth benefits: still unemployment is high in some regions where disproportions among labour supply and demand are more manifested.
Racial disproportions in the United States among jail, prison, and juvenile inmates, awful as they are, are not radically different from those in Australia, Canada, and England and Wales.
By contrast, in states like Georgia, Alabama, California, and Texas, in which imprisonment rates are high, reflecting incarceration of many persons convicted of less serious crimes, larger proportions of white offenders are imprisoned and racial disproportions are less.
Both critiques have merit; the latter rests, however, in part on a misconception that racial disproportion in prisons is markedly worse in the United States than elsewhere.
The chapter concludes that observed disproportions probably reflect all of these causes, singly and in combination, in some school districts some of the time.
The chapter points out that although the IQ test figures prominently in the identification of children prior to placement, the disproportion of minority children in special education is less than what it would be if IQ scores were the sole basis for a placement decision.