One hundred disinfested
seeds (four replicates of 25) were used and later inoculated with Fusarium sp.
Solarization and biofumigation help disinfest
Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation (PI) as a treatment to disinfest
agricultural commodities in trade has expanded in recent years.
auropunctata control, two applications of granular bait containing both hydramethylnon and S-methoprene, or metaflumizone applied as a spray, demonstrated potential to be part of a multiple treatment protocol for infested potted plants, as they completely disinfested
63 to 66% of plants treated, while the remaining infested plants averaged only 14 to 29 live worker ants per plant.
Irradiation has been used commercially since 1995 for interstate disinfestation of perishable commodities of several pests including tephritids within the US and since 2004 to disinfest
mangoes shipped from Australia to New Zealand of tephritids without insurmountable incident.
Heating through "forced air" or in water baths has long been used to disinfest
fruit destined for export (e.g., Hawkins 1932).
Later on, seeds were further surface disinfested
by immersing in 70% ethanol for 2 min and 2% H2O2 for 15-20 min and then rinsed in sterilized deionized water for 4-5 times.
In the assay to induce phytoalexins, seeds of the Crioula Carioca bean variety were first disinfested
in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution (5 min), and then washed in sterile distilled water.
and sterilized, buds are inoculated into the medium and then transferred to a growth room and kept at environmental conditions of 27 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C, 22 [mu]E/[m.sup.2]/s of brightness and 16 hours of photoperiod.
Caption: FIGURE 1: Percentage of non-germinated seeds (SNG), germinated seeds (SG), normal seedlings (PN) and symptomatic seedlings (PS) in teak seeds transmission test from Tocantins (A), Goias (B) and Sao Paulo (C), submitted to the treatments: with mesocarp--seeds disinfested
(CMSD), with mesocarp--not disinfested
seeds (CMSND), without mesocarp--seeds disinfested
(SMSD) and without mesocarp not disinfested
Intact seeds were disinfested
with ethanol (70[degrees]GL) for 4 minutes and commercial sodium hypochloride (2.5%) for 15 minutes.
Larvae were disinfested
with 10% alcohol and kept in a dry chamber for another three days, when dissection was performed to confirm the death of the insect by the nematode.