stimulus

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stimulus

 [stim´u-lus] (L.)
any agent, act, or influence that produces functional or trophic reaction in a receptor or an irritable tissue.
conditioned stimulus a stimulus that acquires the ability to evoke a given response by repeatedly being linked with another stimulus that naturally evokes that response; see also conditioning.
depolarizing stimulus a stimulus that lowers the resting potential, making the inside of a fiber less negative. In cardiac fibers this means bringing the resting potential from −90 mV to −70 mV.
discriminative stimulus a stimulus associated with reinforcement, which exerts control over a given type of behavior; the subject must discriminate between closely related stimuli and respond positively only with this particular stimulus.
eliciting stimulus any stimulus, conditioned or unconditioned, that elicits a response.
threshold stimulus a stimulus that is just strong enough to elicit a response.
unconditioned stimulus any stimulus that naturally evokes a specific response; see also conditioning.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

stim·u·lus

, pl.

stim·u·li

(stim'yū-lŭs, -lī),
1. A stimulant.
2. That which can elicit or evoke action (response) in a muscle, nerve, gland or other excitable tissue, or cause an augmenting action upon any function or metabolic process.
[L. a goad]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

stimulus

(stĭm′yə-ləs)
n. pl. stimu·li (-lī′)
1. Something causing or regarded as causing a response.
2. An agent, action, or condition that elicits or accelerates a physiological or psychological activity or response.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

stim·u·lus

, pl. stimuli (stim'yū-lŭs, -lī)
1. A stimulant.
2. That which can elicit or evoke action (response) in a muscle, nerve, gland or other excitable tissue, or cause an augmenting action on any function or metabolic process.
[L. a goad]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

stimulus

Anything that causes a response, either in an excitable tissue or in an organism.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

stimulus

any detectable change in the environment (internal or external) of an organism which is capable of activating a receptor and thus producing a RESPONSE in the whole organism or parts of it.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Stimulus

A factor capable of eliciting a response in a nerve.
Mentioned in: Pain, Pain Management
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

stimulus 

Any agent or environmental change that provokes a response. Plural: stimuli. See action potential.
adequate stimulus A stimulus of sufficient intensity and of appropriate nature to provoke a response in a given receptor. Visible light is the adequate stimulus for the eye, but pressure on the eye that may nevertheless produce a response (called a phosphene) is an inadequate stimulus.
inadequate stimulus 
See adequate stimulus.
liminal stimulus A stimulus of an intensity such that it just provokes a response that is at threshold. Syn. threshold stimulus.
threshold stimulus See liminal stimulus.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann

stim·u·lus

, pl. stimuli (stim'yū-lŭs, -lī)
That which can elicit or evoke action (response) in a muscle, nerve, gland or other excitable tissue, or cause augmenting action on any function or metabolic process.
[L. a goad]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
The verbal response "ring," for example, can serve as a discriminative stimulus for clusters, such as: (1) "gold," "diamond," "hand," "finger," "engagement;" (2) "noise," "clang," "bell," "door;" (3) "worm," and perhaps other clusters (Winokur, 1976).
These authors reported context-dependence of performance to a discriminative stimulus that was trained within an informative context.
Percentage of correct responses in the last training trial for the target discriminative stimulus (X) were 87.74 (6.01) in Group 3S, 82.86 (6.38) in Group 3D, 91.67 (5.75) in Group 5S, 94.17 (4.34) in Group 5D, 95.83 (4.17) in Group 8S, and 95.49 (3.30) in Group 8D (SEM is presented within brackets).
Evidence for an association between the discriminative stimulus and the response-outcome association in instrumental learning.
In this sense, during intervention time aimed at obtaining information we saw a clear prevalence of the pattern Discriminative stimulus + Discriminative stimulus + Discriminative stimulus + ...
Instead of all features of a complex discriminative stimulus controlling a verbal operant, only one or two features of that stimulus may initially control the response--resulting in overly discriminated responses.
(This also defined transfer of stimulus control for this study, defined as the child correctly and independently responding to the discriminative stimulus with or without the instructional cue to all words for 60 consecutive trials with the controlling prompt never being delivered).
So sometimes, the partner is a discriminative stimulus for reinforcement, but at other times--even under the most favorable conditions--is a partial punisher.
[S.sup.V] = verbal discriminative stimulus, [R.sup.V] = verbal response, [S.sup.rein] = reinforcing stimulus.
DESCRIPTORS: functional analysis, functional communication training, discriminative stimulus, concurrent schedules, problem behavior, mands
Thus, according to this model, any relatively more aversive event should result in a preference for the discriminative stimulus that follows.
Especially since an interaction as such seldom involves arbitrary reinforcers (e.g., food or money) but idiosyncratic responses, supposedly containing both reinforcing and discriminative stimulus functions.