In order to eliminate the disadvantages of assumptions and ignorants and differences in values of parameters and obtain a better insight into the biomechanical aspects and estimation risk of the endodontically treated maxillary two-rooted first premolar, the behavior of different direct restoration
designs and materials in the treatment of cuspal fracture of maxillary first premolars should be evaluated with laboratory experiments and long-term clinical trials.
As shown in Figure 3, of the 1,429 initial direct restorations
initially placed, 1,026 were amalgam (71.8%) and 403 were composite (28.2%).
Conservative direct restorations
for posterior teeth.
The use of light curing composite materials meant a new step forward towards the direct restorations
on the posterior teeth.
Finally, especially in severely decayed teeth and after endodontic treatment, preformed metal crowns should be taken into account as a last and appropriate alternative to direct restorations
. Conclusion: Based on the high clinical success rates, compomers with self-etch adhesives can be recommended for restorative therapy in anterior and posterior primary teeth.
It covers nomenclature and classification of lesions and cavities, general principles of cavity preparation, instruments and materials, isolation of the operatory field, adhesion to dental tissues, composite resin, polymerization of composites, light, color, and characterization of restorations, dental amalgam, direct composite restorations, direct restorations
using amalgam, and indirect restorations like root posts, veneers, and crowns.
Direct bonding is one of the most commonly used form of restoration for the conservative esthetic improvement of anterior teeth.6,8 Recent developments in adhesive technologies, the design of composite resin materials, and contemporary placement techniques have revolutionized the delivery of minimally invasive direct restorations
. Indeed, the aesthetic demands of patients for the restoration of anterior teeth have prompted the doctors to see the tooth as one entity: a smile and gingiva and its components through the development of clinical procedures and techniques for restoration.