The limitations of direct ophthalmoscopy
were overcome with the introduction of other forms of examination, such as slit lamp binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (often referred to as Volk assessment).
Results: In the diagnosis with direct ophthalmoscopy
, 375 eyes out of 500 eyes were diagnosed as diabetic retinopathy (75%); there were 74 eyes at stage I, 88 eyes at stage II, 92 eyes at stage III, 83 eyes of stage IV, 28 eyes of stage V and 10 eyes of stage VI.
Fundus photography rather than direct ophthalmoscopy
is likely to become the standard of care for DR (and smart-phone technology is now being tested for screening for DR using mobile phones).
Unfortunately, the sensitivity of detecting diabetic retinopathy by screening with direct ophthalmoscopy
often fails to reach the 80% threshold, even in the best of hands, making the referral of patients to an ophthalmology service essential.
is warranted to determine if the patient has an elevated cup-disc ratio (>0.6).
All the patients with diabetic retinopathy were subjected to dilated fundoscopy with 90+ D lens direct ophthalmoscopy
and were graded as follows:
Peripheral neuropathy was checked with monofilament and tuning fork test while retinopathy was observed by direct ophthalmoscopy
. Peripheral vascular disease is checked by checking the peripheral pulsations.
The ocular examination included careful testing of standardized Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity (VA), a thorough anterior segment examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) recording with a Goldmann applanation tonometer, and detailed fundus evaluation by indirect and direct ophthalmoscopy
. In addition, all patients had 30-degree color fundus photographs centered on the macula and optic nerve, SLO-IR imaging, fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA), B-scans, and "en face" SD-OCT, to detect small round hyporeflective microcysts confined to the RINL.
Clinical parameters like BP (mean of two readings 10 minutes apart in sitting position) measurement, direct ophthalmoscopy
using 1 Percent mydriacil drops to look for changes of microcirculation in the retina were recorded and graded according to Keith-Wagner-Barker classification and verified by consultant ophthalmalogist.
As pre-regs, we actually host some of these sessions and give presentations to the students about how to measure vision and visual acuity, carry out gross visual field assessments and also how to perform direct ophthalmoscopy
. We asked the students if any of them would volunteer to be dilated for their peers to assess their fundi more easily, and there is also the supplementary option of using dummy eyes.
Abstract: Seventeen adult captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) (34 eyes) underwent a complete ocular examination, including assessment of menace response, pupillary light reflexes, dazzle reflex, palpebral and corneal reflexes, fluorescein staining, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and direct ophthalmoscopy
. Birds were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups for tear production and intraocular pressure measurements.
at one meter and Posterior segment slit lamp examination with 90D bi-spheric condensing lens was done for the presence or absence of retinal red reflex through pupil, and vitreous exudates.