turgidum support diphyletic
origin of polyploid wheats.
The unique similarity in the cleavage pattern of these two groups supports the ideas of Schmekel (1985), who proposed a close relationship between the Umbraculomorpha and the Aplysiomorpha, and the diphyletic
origin of the Notaspidea.
In Figure 5, the occurrence of foliated shell microstructure is plotted on a tree constructed in accordance with the hypothesis proposed by Giribet and Distel (2003), the most recently published and most densely sampled study of pteriomorph bivalves, which suggests that the character is at least diphyletic
and constitutes a synapomorphy for a clade consisting of ([Plicatuloidea + Anomioidea] + [Limoidea + Pectinoidea]) and another clade for the Ostreoidea.
In the conchological data only, electrophoretic data only, and combined conchological and electrophoretic data analyses, the cosmopolitan thiarid outgroups, Melanoides and Cleopatra, invariably nested among the endemic Tanganyikan gastropods, suggesting that the endemic Tanganyikan thiarids are at least diphyletic
[ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 6 OMITTED].