diphosphonate


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diphosphonate

 [di-fos´fo-nāt]
any of a group of related phosphorus-containing compounds that are structurally similar to pyrophosphate but have enhanced stability to enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis and have affinity for sites of osteoid mineralization. They are used as sodium salts to inhibit bone resorption as well as complexed with technetium Tc 99m for bone imaging. The group includes alendronate, etidronate, and pamidronate. Called also bisphosphonate.

diphosphonate

(dī′fŏs′fə-nāt′)
n.
Variant of bisphosphonate.

bisphosphonate

Any of a family of drugs with two phosphonate (PO3) groups, which inhibit enzymes that break down pyrophosphate. Bisphosphonates include etidronate and clodronate (first-generation agents), and pamidronate disodium (a second-generation bisphosphonate), which inhibits bone resorption at doses that do not affect bone mineralisation. Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of bone resorption that bind tightly to the hydroxyapatite crystals, and have therapeutic potential in osteoporosis and in advanced (stage-III) multiple myeloma and Paget’s disease of bone.

Indications
Treat and prevent osteoporosis, osteolysis due to metastatic breast and prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, Paget's disease of bone, fibrous dysplasia, Gaucher's disease, etc.

Adverse effect
Upset stomach, gastritis, oesophageal erosions; long-term effects include femoral fractures and an increased risk of oesophageal cancer.

Agents
Etidronate, clodronate, tiludronate.
References in periodicals archive ?
SPECT-CT for characterization of extraosseous uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate on bone scintigraphy.
(b) Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scan showed a focus of intense tracer uptake in the proximal ulna.
Dijkstra, "Depletion and repopulation of macrophages in spleen and liver of rat after intravenous treatment with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate," Cell and Tissue Research, vol.
Conversely, OTM decreased with an increase in bone minerals after diphosphonate treatment [14-16].
Intravia, "Atypical femur fractures associated with diphosphonate use," Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol.
To investigate the presence of other osteoarticular involvement, technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ([sup.99m]Tc-HMDP) scintigraphy was performed, which demonstrated diffuse increased uptake at the right mandible, as well as in the sternum and the sternocostoclavicular joints (Figure 4).
Lanker et al., "Effect of diphosphonate binding to collagen upon inhibition of calcification and promotion of spontaneous endothelial cell coverage on tissue valve prostheses," ASAIO transactions/American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, vol.
Hasbak, "Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis demonstrated by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan," Clinical Nuclear Medicine, vol.
All incidental findings discovered on cMRI were characterized by means of additional imaging techniques: ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), dedicated MR examination, bone scintigraphy with technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTC-MDP), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT).
Furthermore, they can be conjugated with active substances such as estradiol, prostaglandin, diclofenac, fluoroquinolone, cisplatin, methotrexate, technetium hydroxyethylene diphosphonate, technetium methylene diphosphonate, samarium, lexidronam.
99 m Tc MDP (methylene diphosphonate), 20 milli Curie (mCi) dose, was injected intravenously followed immediately by perfusion phase and by blood pool phase imaging of the involved site.
Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy also confirmed a single abnormal fixation at L3-L4 level, and transthoracic echocardiography revealed no valvular lesion or abscess.

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