Other prescribed treatments after the initial diagnosis included sulfonylureas (7%), insulin (6%), dipeptidyl peptidase
4 inhibitors (6%), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (1.5%) and a variety of combination treatments typically metformin plus sufonylureas (5%).
Effects on lipid profile of dipeptidyl peptidase
4 inhibitors, pioglitazone, acarbose, and sulfonylureas: Meta-analysis of placebo controlled trials.
BXCL701 is an orally-available systemic innate-immune activator that inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase
8/9 and FAP developed by BTI.
Association between use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase
4 inhibitors with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
4-inhibitor (DPP4i) could prevent the inactivation of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, thus raising plasma concentrations of the intact, active forms of these peptides and thereby improving islet function by increasing a-cell and [sz]-cell sensitivity to glucose. DPP4i has been used widely for blood glucose control.
The researchers studied three types of diabetes treatment: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase
4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.
Federici et al., "Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase
4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis," International Journal of Cardiology, vol.
() They are very much short acting as they are rapidly degraded by an enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase
(DPP)-4 which exists in various cell types including vascular, intestinal, and renal cells, () and its inhibition by DPP-4 inhibitors prolongs the action of them.
The team from Kolkata's CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Republic of Korea's Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Kolkata's Vidyasagar College and the Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMER) here has in a recent study answered a long standing question as to why diabetics have more amount of an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase
4 or DPP4 in their blood.
Because of the host restriction conferred by the binding of the MERS-CoV spike protein to its receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase
4 (DPP4), small animal models that are routinely used to conduct infectious disease research are not naturally susceptible to MERS-CoV infection.
Abbreviations CAD: Coronary artery disease CRP: C-reactive protein CX3CL1: Fractalkine CX3CR1: Fractalkine receptor DPP-4: Dipeptidyl peptidase
4 IL: Interleukin LPS: Lipopolysaccharide MCP-1: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 PBMCs: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells T2DM: Type 2 diabetes TNF-[alpha]: Tumor necrosis factor alpha.
There is no doubt that major cardiovascular events (MACE), death, and heart failure are indeed robust clinical endpoints; however, some of the results such as the potential heart failure signal for the dipeptidyl peptidase
4 (DPP-4) inhibitor saxagliptin in SAVORTIMI 53 or the pronounced cardiovascular benefit of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors empagliflozin and canagliflozin were rather surprising.