* UVA and UVB absorbers: dioxybenzone
, oxybenzone, sulisobenzone
But for 12 other active ingredients (cinoxate, dioxybenzone
, ensulizole, homosalate, meradimate, octinoxate, octisalate, octocrylene, padimate O, sulisobenzone, oxybenzone, and avobenzone), there are insufficient data to make a "generally recognized as safe and effective" determination; thus, more data have been requested from the manufacturers.
I presume the remaining items, namely cinoxate, dioxybenzone
, sulisobenzone, padimate O, meradimate, ensulizole, homosalate, octisalate, octinoxate and octocrylene would be rendered useless or unapproved if no company in our industry has the will, the courage, the time and the money to go through with the proposed extensive testing for approval as GRASE UV filters.
The active ingredients in commercial sunscreens are usually limited to zinc oxide or titanium dioxide to serve as a physical barrier against UV radiation, often in combination with avobenzone or dioxybenzone
, which provide approved sun-protection-factor (SPF) ratings.
Sulisobenzone and dioxybenzone
are difficult to solubilize and are used rarely.
Ingredients such as avabenzone, Parsol 1789, oxybenzone and dioxybenzone
provide some protection against UVA rays and can be found on the labels of many "broad spectrum" sunscreen products.
In tests, it filtered out ultraviolet light as well as associated chemicals: oxybenzone, dioxybenzone
, octyl methoxycinnamate and padimate-O.
They ran sun-protection-factor tests to compare SoyScreen to four commercial UV absorbents: oxybenzone, dioxybenzone
, octyl methoxycinnamate, and padimate-O.
Protection from UVA and UVB is afforded by the benzophenones (dioxybenzone
, oxybenzone, and sulisobenzone) (Heffernan & O'Sullivan, 1998; Nicol, 1989; Truhan, 1991).
But until such guidelines are adopted (probably within the coming year) consumers should purchase sunscreens with such ingredients as oxybenzone, dioxybenzone
and sulisobenzone, which help provide UVA protection, according to Vincent DeLeo, director of environmental dermatology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City.
The ingredients requiring additional investigation are avobenzone, cinoxate, dioxybenzone
, ensulizole, homosalate, meradimate, octinoxate, octisalate, octocrylene, oxybenzone padimate O, and sulisobenzone.
Table I: Category I UV Filters UV Absorbers/Reflectors % Oxybenzone 2-6 Sulisobenzone 5-10 Dioxybenzone
3 Menthyl anthranilate 3.5-5 Red petrolatum 30-100 Titanium dioxide 2-25 UVB Absorbers Aminobenzoic acid 5-15 Amyl dimethyl PABA (a) 1-5 2-Ethoxyethyl p-methoxycinnamate 1-3 Diethanoloamine p-methoxycinnamate 8-10 Digalloyl trioleate 2-5 Ethyl 4-bis(hydroxypropyl) aminobenzoate (a) 1-5 2-Ethylhexyl-2-cyano-3,3-diphenyl-acrylate 7-10 Ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate 2-7.5 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate 3-5 Glyceryl aminobenzoate (a) 2-3 Homomenthyl salicylate 4-15 Lawsone with Dihydroxyacetone (a) 0.25 Octyl dimethyl PABA 1.4-8 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonicacid 1-4 Triethanaolamine salicylate 5-12 (a)-These items were deleted from the Final Monograph in 1999.