Even though ants are unlikely pollinators of a dioecious
Ailanthus, ants may nevertheless be a symbiont.
Using this approach, we then compared the dynamics of a protogynous population with fixed size at sex change and an otherwise identical dioecious
species (Alonzo and Mangel, 2004).
Sex ratio variation in the dioecious
shrub Oemleria cerasiformis.
For example, populations of Fragaria chiloensis are dioecious
along the Pacific Coast of North and South America but are hermaphroditic in Hawaii (Baker 1967).
The plant, which grows to about 60cm, is dioecious
: having flowers of both sexes in the axils, transforming into the translucent berries.
Experiments on the effects of animal sex hormones on dioecious
Dorstenia species are mostly monoecious, being rarely dioecious
(Datwyler & Weiblen, 2004).
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an annual dioecious
herb belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family.
minuta was an active pollinator and the host tree had dioecious
Additionally, if a species is known to be dioecious
Macroscopic and microscopic examination of gonads confirmed that this species is dioecious
with no apparent external dimorphism.
In both dioecious
and androdioecious barnacles, males are always tiny and live attached to conspecific females or hermaphrodites; hence, they are known as dwarf males (see Hoeg, 1995 and Yusa et al., 2010, 2012 for terminology).