Effects of the harmful dinoflagellate
Most species of dinoflagellates
are photosynthetic, and some species do produce bioluminescence."
Alexandrium catenella (strain AC 0206 [phrase omitted]) and Alexandrium affine (strain At37) and the raphidophytes Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo (isolated from Ago Bay, in 2013) were cultured at 20[degrees]C in autoclaved F/2 medium, under a 12-h L:12-h D photoperiod.
are not the only sea creatures that bioluminesce.
Our results indicate that during the winter, these dinoflagellates
persist in the region of Aysen, with a spatially variable distribution, confirmed by historical data recorded in the same sampling areas: Channels Moraleda, Puyuhuapi, Costa, and fjords Aysen and Elefantes.
Species names of these dinoflagellates
are used where available; otherwise, the ITS2 type is given.
The slight differences between the strains isolated from the same place such as those from Rio de Janeiro could be even attributed to intragenomic variability as found in other lineages of dinoflagellates
Interactions between the Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio Parahaemolyticus and Red-Tide Dinoflagellates
. Ocean Science Journal 46 (2): 105-15.
Kremer, "Carbon metabolism and strobilation in Cassiopea andromedea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa): Significance of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates
," Marine Biology, vol.
Perez and Weis  suggested that CYP may help in the regulation of symbiosis between the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida and intracellular dinoflagellates
. Interestingly, their study showed that the dinoflagellate
symbionts (zooxanthellae) became heat sensitive when CYP was inhibited by cyclosporine and showed loss of the symbionts from the host tissues .
Coolia Malaynesis, Alexandrium tropicale, A.
Sarjeant W (1974) Fossil and living dinoflagellates
. Academic Press, New York.