This is partly due to the limited amount of dinoflagellate toxin
that can be amassed for detailed clinical evaluation (Gallardo-Rodriguez et al.
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin.
Recurrence of kills of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus harengus caused by dinoflagellate toxins transferred through herbivorous zooplankton.
Humpback whales (Megaoetera novaeangliae) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaegliea) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin
In the absence of a reliable environmental marker for exposure to dinoflagellate toxin, time spent on risky waters was used as a surrogate exposure index for potential Pfiesteria or exposure to MRO.
The choice of 5 miles to define exposure is somewhat arbitrary; dinoflagellate toxin has not been characterized completely and cannot be measured in the environment.
Lionfish are reef and structure dwellers that prey on smaller fish, invertebrates, and mollusks, most of which are herbivores that feed on algae growing on corals and can bioconcentrate dinoflagellate toxins
, such as gambiertoxins.
Chemistry and distribution of deleterious dinoflagellate toxins
The involvement of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in incorporating polyketide fragments into a polyether backbone is unusual and is characteristic of the biosynthesis of dinoflagellate toxins
Brevetoxins: unique polyether dinoflagellate toxins
Moreover, scientists have not determined whether visual contrast sensitivity is affected by known dinoflagellate toxins