This is partly due to the limited amount of dinoflagellate toxin
that can be amassed for detailed clinical evaluation (Gallardo-Rodriguez et al., 2012).
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin
Humpback whales (Megaoetera novaeangliae) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaegliea) fatally poisoned by dinoflagellate toxin
. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:1895-1898 (1988).
In the absence of a reliable environmental marker for exposure to dinoflagellate toxin
, time spent on risky waters was used as a surrogate exposure index for potential Pfiesteria or exposure to MRO.
Lionfish are reef and structure dwellers that prey on smaller fish, invertebrates, and mollusks, most of which are herbivores that feed on algae growing on corals and can bioconcentrate dinoflagellate toxins
, such as gambiertoxins.
Chemistry and distribution of deleterious dinoflagellate toxins
. In: D.
Marine food-borne dinoflagellate toxins
. Int Rev Cytol 82:99-150.
The involvement of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in incorporating polyketide fragments into a polyether backbone is unusual and is characteristic of the biosynthesis of dinoflagellate toxins
Biosynthesis of dinoflagellate toxins
. In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton (Graneli E, Sundstrom B, Edler L, Anderson DM eds).
Brevetoxins: unique polyether dinoflagellate toxins
. FASEB 3:1807-1817.
Moreover, scientists have not determined whether visual contrast sensitivity is affected by known dinoflagellate toxins
. The researchers point out that there is no evidence that a relationship exists between potential environmental exposure to Pfiesteria or related toxic dinoflagellates and a reduction in visual contrast sensitivity, but that such reduced sensitivity should be considered in future studies to assess whether it might act as a marker of toxic dinoflagellate exposure.