dilutional hyponatremia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to dilutional hyponatremia: Water intoxication

de·ple·tion·al hy·po·na·tre·mi·a

decreased serum sodium concentration associated with loss of sodium from the circulating blood through the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, or into the "third space." Accompanied by hypovolemic and hypotonic state.

SIADH

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. A condition characterised by increased vasopressin/ADH secretion (despite low plasma osmolarity), water retention and dilutional hyponatraemia.
 
Aetiology
Addison’s disease, ACTH deficiency, AIDS, hypopituitarism, paraneoplastic hormone production (small cell carcinoma of lung, bronchogenic, pancreas, uterine, bladder or prostate), lymphoproliferative disorders, mesothelioma, thymoma, CNS disease (trauma, infection, chromophobe adenoma), metastases, lung disease (TB, pneumonia, PEEP ventilation), porphyria, drugs (e.g., chlorpropamide, vincristine, etc.).
 
Lab
Hypervolemia, hypouricaemia, decreased creatinine, hyponatraemia, natriuresis (urinary sodium > 20 mEq/L with decreased BUN), no symptoms of volume depletion, decreased maximum urinary dilution, increased ADH, normal renal and adrenal function.
 
Management
Corticosteroids to suppress ADH secretion.

dilutional hyponatremia

See SIADH.
References in periodicals archive ?
Serum osmolality and plasma electrolytes in patients who develop dilutional hyponatremia during transurethral resection.
Current evidence strongly indicates that EAH is a dilutional hyponatremia, caused by an increase in total body water relative to the amount of total body exchangeable Na+ (1,4,21-23,26-30,33,35,36,39,46,48,53,55).
The vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist VPA-985 is effective in treating dilutional hyponatremia in patients with cirrhosis and ascites, reported Dr.
As water follows sodium, this renal excretion of sodium results in an overall decreased fluid volume.[7] SIADH is a dilutional hyponatremia rather than a true loss of sodium; intravascular volume is increased because fluid is retained due to increased amounts of circulating vasopressin.
1 .Kato DB: Dilutional hyponatremia and water intoxication during carbamazepine therapy.
Dilutional hyponatremia in patients with cirrhosis and ascites Arch Intern Med 2002;162(3):323-8.
The panel elucidated that the pathophysiology of dilutional hyponatremia in long distance runners is multifactorial, combining intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors.
The vasopressin receptor antagonist VPA-985 improves renal free water excretion and dilutional hyponatremia in patients with advanced cirrhosis and ascites, or with congestive heart failure, said Dr.