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Sulfonamides inhibit one of the integral enzymes in folate synthesis, dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), which catalyzes the condensation of para-aminobenzoic acid and pteridine to form dihydropteroic acid (Figure).
Sulfamethoxazole inhibits dihydropteroate synthase, the bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the incorporation of p-aminobenzoid acid into dihydropteroic acid, the immediate precursor of folic acid, while trimethoprim was specifically synthesized as an inhibitor of dihydrofolate-reductase (40).
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