digoxin


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digoxin

 [dĭ-jok´sin]
a cardiotonic glycoside obtained from the leaves of Digitalis lanata; used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. It has a relatively rapid action and rapid elimination.
digoxin immune Fab (ovine) see under Fab.

digoxin

Apo-Digoxin (CA), Digitek, Lanoxin, PMS Digoxin

Pharmacologic class: Cardiac glycoside

Therapeutic class: Inotropic, antiarrhythmic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Increases force and velocity of myocardial contraction and prolongs refractory period of atrioventricular (AV) node by increasing calcium entry into myocardial cells. Slows conduction through sinoatrial and AV nodes and produces antiarrhythmic effect.

Availability

Oral solution (pediatric): 0.05 mg/ml

Injection: 0.05 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml, 0.25 mg/ml

Tablets: 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg

Indications and dosages

Heart failure; tachyarrhythmias; atrial fibrillation and flutter; paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

Adults: For rapid digitalizing, 0.6 to 1 mg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 0.75 to 1.25 mg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 0.063 to 0.5 mg/day (tablets) or 0.35 to 0.5 mg/day (gelatin capsules), depending on lean body weight, renal function, and drug blood level.

Children older than age 10: For rapid digitalizing, 8 to 12 mcg/kg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 10 to 15 mcg/kg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 6- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 25% to 35% of loading dosage, given daily as a single dose (determined by renal function).

Children ages 5 to 10: For rapid digitalizing, 15 to 30 mcg/kg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 20 to 35 mcg/kg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 6- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 25% to 35% of loading dosage, given daily in two divided doses (determined by renal function).

Children ages 2 to 5: For rapid digitalizing, 25 to 35 mcg/kg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 30 to 40 mcg/kg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 6- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 25% to 35% of loading dosage, given daily in two divided doses (determined by renal function).

Children ages 1 to 24 months: For rapid digitalizing, 30 to 50 mcg/kg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 35 to 60 mcg/kg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 6- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 25% to 35% of loading dosage, given daily in two divided doses (determined by renal function).

Infants (full-term): For rapid digitalizing, 20 to 30 mcg/kg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 25 to 35 mcg/kg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 6- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 25% to 35% of loading dosage, given daily in two divided doses (determined by renal function).

Infants (premature): For rapid digitalizing, 15 to 25 mcg/kg I.V. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 4- to 8-hour intervals; or digitalizing dose of 20 to 30 mcg/kg P.O. over 24 hours, with 50% of total dosage given initially and additional fractions given at 6- to 8-hour intervals. Maintenance dosage is 20% to 30% of loading dosage, given daily in two divided doses (determined by renal function).

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

• Hyperthyroidism

• Elderly patients

Off-label uses

• Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

• Intrauterine tachyarrhythmias

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Uncontrolled ventricular arrhythmias

• AV block

• Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis

• Constrictive pericarditis

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal or hepatic impairment, electrolyte imbalances, myocardial infarction, thyroid disorders

• obesity

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Administer I.V. drug undiluted, or dilute with sterile water for injection, normal saline solution, or dextrose 5% in water as directed.

Know that drug has narrow therapeutic index, so dosage must be monitored regularly and patient must be monitored for signs and symptoms of toxicity.

• Know that for rapid effect, initial digitalizing dose generally is given in several divided doses over 12 to 24 hours.

• Be aware that dosages used for atrial arrhythmias generally are higher than those used for inotropic effect.

Adverse reactions

CNS: fatigue, headache, asthenia

CV: bradycardia, ECG changes, arrhythmias

EENT: blurred or yellow vision

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

GU: gynecomastia

Hematologic: thrombocytopenia

Other: decreased appetite

Interactions

Drug-drug. Amiodarone, cyclosporine, diclofenac, diltiazem, propafenone, quinidine, quinine, verapamil: increased digoxin blood level, possibly leading to toxicity

Amphotericin B, corticosteroids, mezlocillin, piperacillin, thiazide and loop diuretics, ticarcillin: hypokalemia, increased risk of digoxin toxicity

Antacids, cholestyramine, colestipol, kaolin/pectin: decreased digoxin absorption

Beta-adrenergic blockers, other antiarrhythmics (including disopyramide, quinidine): additive bradycardia

Laxatives (excessive use): hypokalemia, increased risk of digoxin toxicity

Spironolactone: reduced digoxin clearance, increased risk of digoxin toxicity

Thyroid hormones: decreased digoxin efficacy

Drug-diagnostic tests. Creatine kinase: increased level

Drug-food. High-fiber meal: decreased digoxin absorption

Drug-herbs. Coca seed, coffee seed, cola seed, guarana seed, horsetail, licorice, natural stimulants (such as aloe), yerba maté: increased risk of digoxin toxicity and hypokalemia

Ephedra (ma huang): arrhythmias

Hawthorn: increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects

Indian snakeroot: bradycardia

Psyllium: decreased digoxin absorption

St. John's wort: decreased blood level and effects of digoxin

Patient monitoring

• Assess apical pulse regularly for 1 full minute. If rate is less than 60 beats/minute, withhold dose and notify prescriber.

Monitor for signs and symptoms of drug toxicity (such as nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, arrhythmias, and altered mental status). Be aware that therapeutic digoxin levels range from 0.5 to 2 ng/ml.

• Monitor ECG and blood levels of digoxin, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and creatinine.

• Stay alert for hypocalcemia. Know that this condition may predispose patient to digoxin toxicity and may decrease digoxin efficacy.

Watch closely for hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Know that digoxin toxicity may occur with these conditions despite digoxin blood levels below 2 ng/ml.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take drug at same time every day.

Instruct patient not to stop drug abruptly.

• Instruct patient not to take over-the-counter drugs without prescriber's approval.

Teach patient how to recognize and report signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity.

• Stress importance of follow-up testing as directed by prescriber.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, and herbs mentioned above.

di·gox·in

(di-jok'sin),
A cardioactive steroid glycoside obtained from Digitalis lanata. Largely eliminated by the kidneys.

digoxin

(dĭj-ŏk′sĭn)
n.
A cardiac glycoside, C41H64O14, obtained from the leaves of a foxglove, Digitalis lanata, with pharmacological effects similar to digitalis.

digoxin

Cardiology The most widely used cardiac glycoside, used primarily for CHF, and less commonly atrial arrhythmias; digoxin is often the first drug used in new-onset A Fib, as it↑ parasympathetic tone, which explains digoxin's relative inefficacy in treating rapid A Fib, as rapid A Fib is often a manifestation of ↑ SNS tone, which commonly occurs in acute illness and is associated with ↑ catecholamines; CCBs–eg, verapamil, diltiazem may be more effective than digoxin for slowing of very rapid A Fib especially with an overactive SNS. See Digitalis toxicity.

digoxin

A valuable heart drug derived from the white foxglove Digitalis lanata . It is the most widely used of the DIGITALIS heart drugs and is a member of the group of cardiac glycosides. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Lanoxin.

di·gox·in

(dī-gok'sin)
A cardioactive steroid glycoside obtained from Digitalis lanata.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lopes noted that both the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology atrial fibrillation guidelines recommend digoxin for rate control in patients with AF, and neither set of guidelines contains any specific recommendation about serum monitoring.
A randomized clinical trial of digoxin in AF is extremely unlikely, added Dr.
Digoxin is a reversible inhibitor of the sodium/potassium-ATPase pump found in every cell in the body.
To start the assay, digoxin (50 [micro]M) was added to the donor chamber in each well, then 500 [micro]l samples were removed from the receiver chambers at 15,30,45,60,90, and 120 min, respectively.
So the effect of juice of bulbs of Allium cepa was compared with digoxin solution in hypodynamic heart for comparison.
Absorption rates for every medication route are different due to digoxin's low serum protein binding power (Kee et al., 2012).
Our patient developed acute digoxin toxicity after a standard loading dose of 0.01 mg/kg (1).
In the analysis, digoxin was associated with a 41 percent increase in deaths from any cause after controlling for other medications and risk factors.
The use of digoxin was associated with poorer overall survival within all three treatment groups.
Three sets of protocols were used (1) addition of digoxin at a concentration of 1 mg/ml (2) exposure to sunlight of the experimental setup for 1 hour (3) exposure to low intensity electromagnetic field for 1 hour.
In an article published online June 14 in Molecular Pharmacology, researchers at the University of Michigan Health System reveal that digoxin, the active ingredient in digitalis, or the poisonous plant Foxglove, can enhance the body's own protective mechanism against high blood pressure and heart failure.