Najaf Abadi et al,8 examined the short-term memory and the cognition/inhibition flexibility of 17 female athletes based on digit span test
(DST) parameters and Stroop colour test.
The result suggests that there are impairments in both neurocognitive functions (Clock Drawing Test, Trail Marking Test, Digit Span Test
, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Semantic Similarity Test, Stroop Color-Word Test) and social cognitive function (Facial Emotion Cognition Task), and that the cerebral grey matter volume of patients with schizophrenia is also abnormal (left superior frontal gyrus, occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus and upper cerebellum).
Moreover, patients completed the Digit Span test
 and total score, as well as subscores on forward and backward conditions, was used for analyses.
Koppitz (24) developed Visual Aural Digit Span Test
but it has the limitation and reduction of errors, to eliminate these GISD-B form was developed.
The following tests were carried out on the subjects (study and control) in a relaxed state and privacy was given utmost importance: Rye's auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), verbal fluency test (VFT) and working digit span test
(WDST) to assess short-term memory, visual reproduction test (VRT), and validation span test (VST) were used to assess working memory.
According to individual comparison, we concluded that the group with mild injury was different on picture completion and digit span test
significantly from the group with moderate injury.
All tasks were administered to all participants individually in the following order: 1) The digit span test
. 2) The box-crossing task separately (single condition).
(5,6,11,12) Neurocognitive performance was assessed by comparing the low and high functioning groups with the controls for digit span test
, Trail Making Test, Stroop Colour Test, and verbal learning and memory test.
Visual Aural Digit Span Test
Form B (VADS-B): VADS-B, which was developed by Karakas and Yalin (50,51), is modeled on the Visual Aural Digit Span Test
(VADS), which is designed to assess short-term memory capacity (52).
The primary endpoints were Inattention/Overactivity (I/O) with Aggression Conners Behavior Rating Scale (IOWA) and Digit Span Test
at week 12 compared with baseline.
Auditory working memory was assessed using a modified recorded version of the Digit Span Test
(DS), a subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition (WAIS-III) .