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As for the other instruments more commonly used, the Verbal Fluency Test and Digit Span Memory Test do not assess global cognition and are more specific for certain functions.
Measures: The subtests selected for the purpose of screening of PSCI were taken from standardized batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children,13 Wechsler Memory Scale,14 Bell's Test15 and Non-Verbal Learning Test.16 The subtests taken from WISC include: Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span and Block Design whereas subtests chosen from WMS include Orientation and Paired Associate Learning Test (Verbal).
The present study employed neuro-cognition tests, including the Clock Drawing Test, Trail Marking Test, Digit Span Test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Semantic Similarity Test and Stroop Color-Word Test's reaction time, and they assessed the cognitive function impairments in schizophrenia on a more comprehensive level.
In the MCI and non-MCI groups forward digit span increased from 6.7 [+ or -] 1.5 to 7.5 [+ or -] 1.4 points (p = 0.023) and from 6.2 [+ or -] 2.0 to 7.0 [+ or -] 2.1 (p = 0.011) points, respectively after CEFP session (middle and right panel, Figure 1 (A)).
GVLTDe-=Greek Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score, STRW=Stroop Color-Word Test total score on word condition, STRC=Stroop Color-Word Test total score on color condition, STRCW= Stroop Color-Word Test score on color-word condition, EPST=Experimental Processing Speed Test, VFTS = Verbal Fluency Semantic condition, VFTP=Verbal fluency phonemic condition, DS=Digit Span test Total, DSF= Digit Span Test Forwards, and DSB=Digit Span Test backwards.
No statistically significant difference was found between the groups when the performances of the Visual Aural Digit Span Test - Form B (GISD-B) were evaluated.
Figure 1: Memory status: Normal subjects vs Diabetic subjects Normal subjects Diabetic subjects Auditory verbal learning test 69.30 45.35 Verbal fluency test 92.50 52.50 Visual reproduction test 90.00 84.50 Working digit span test 80.00 54.00 Validation span test 76.00 36.00 Note: Table made from bar graph.
(2017) recently reported about the same relationships between intelligence and both simple and complex span, and Gignac (2015) was able to identify a number of relatively recent digit span studies indicating "Digit Span is somewhere between a moderate to good indicator of intellectual functioning on both empirical and theoretical grounds" (pp.
These tests were for digit span backwards and logical memory test which assess attention, working memory, immediate recall and comprehension.
Moderate correlations were found between Stroop test score and [P.sub.4] amplitude, digit span forward and [C.sub.3] and [P.sub.z] amplitude, and digit span backward and [O.sub.1] amplitude.