Focal traumatic brain injuries occur in association with the more typical diffuse injuries
seen in TBI patients, and can be caused by a wide range of events such as car accidents, falls, firearm mishaps, and battle-field injuries.
In contrast to diffuse injuries
, focal brain injuries occur in a specific location, rather than over a widespread area.
Contact forces cause focal injuries (scalp contusion, skull fracture, epidural hemorrhage), whereas acceleration-deceleration (primarily rotational forces) result in diffuse injuries
(eg, subdural hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury, intermediate contusion).