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dicyclomine (dicycloverine (UK))
Pharmacologic class: Anticholinergic
Therapeutic class: Antispasmodic
Pregnancy risk category B
Thought to exert direct effect on GI smooth muscle by inhibiting acetylcholine at receptor sites, thereby reducing GI tract motility and tone
Capsules: 10 mg
Solution for injection: 10 mg/ml
Syrup: 10 mg/5 ml
Tablets: 20 mg
Indications and dosages
➣ Irritable bowel syndrome in patients unresponsive to usual interventions
Adults: 20 mg P.O. or I.M. q.i.d.; may increase up to 160 mg/day
• Hypersensitivity to drug
• GI or genitourinary tract obstruction
• Severe ulcerative colitis
• Reflux esophagitis
• Unstable cardiovascular status
• Myasthenia gravis
• Infants younger than 6 months
Use cautiously in:
• hepatic or renal impairment, autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, prostatic hypertrophy
• elderly patients
• pregnant patients (safety not established).
• Give 30 to 60 minutes before meals; give bedtime dose at least 2 hours after evening meal.
☞ Don't administer by I.V. route.
• Don't give by I.M. route for more than 2 days.
CNS: confusion, drowsiness, light-headedness (with I.M. use), psychosis
CV: palpitations, tachycardia
EENT: blurred vision, increased intraocular pressure
GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, heartburn, decreased salivation, dry mouth, paralytic ileus
GU: urinary hesitancy or retention, erectile dysfunction, decreased lactation
Skin: decreased sweating, rash, itching, urticaria
Other: pain and redness at I.M. site, allergic reactions including anaphylaxis
Drug-drug. Adsorbent antidiarrheals, antacids: decreased dicyclomine absorption
Cyclopropane anesthetics: increased risk of cardiovascular adverse reactions
Oral drugs: altered absorption of these drugs
Potassium (oral): increased GI mucosal lesions
Other anticholinergics (including antihistamines, disopyramide, quinidine): additive anticholinergic effects
Drug-diagnostic tests. Gastric acid secretion test: antagonism of pentagastrin and histamine (testing agents)
☞ Stay alert for anaphylaxis.
• Monitor vital signs and fluid intake and output. Ask patient about palpitations.
☞ Assess for light-headedness, confusion, and rash after I.M. injection.
• Evaluate patient's vision, particularly for blurring and other signs and symptoms of increasing intraocular pressure.
• Assess bowel pattern, particularly for signs and symptoms of paralytic ileus.
• Instruct patient to take drug 30 to 60 minutes before meals and to take bedtime dose at least 2 hours after evening meal.
• Advise patient not to take antacids or adsorbent antidiarrheals within 2 hours of dicyclomine.
☞ Urge patient to promptly report rash, abdominal pain, decreased urinary output, or absence of bowel movements.
• Caution patient to avoid driving or other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration, vision, and alertness.
☞ Instruct patient to avoid exposure to high temperatures and to immediately notify prescriber if fever and decreased sweating occur in high environmental temperature.
• Advise patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent servings of healthy food and drinking plenty of fluids.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.