dichogamy


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Related to dichogamy: heterostyly

dichogamy

the maturation of anthers and ovules in a flower at different times.
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This is true if the flowers have any adaptations for the avoidance of selfing: spatial (intrafloral herkogamy, monoecious or dioecious dicliny; Webb and Lloyd, 1986) or temporal (dichogamy: protandry, protogyny; Lloyd and Webb, 1986) separation of stigma and pollen presentation, or self incompatibility.
Outcrossing rates may change along with a variety of factors, both genetic and environmental, including loss of pollinators often associated with shifts in habitat (Ganders 1978; Delph 1990b; Weller and Sakai 1990); changes in dichogamy and floral morphology (e.g., Ritland and Ritland 1989; Sun and Ganders 1990; Holtsford and Ellstrand 1992; Belaoussoff and Shore 1995) and increases in the proportion of females in the population (e.g., Kesseli and Jain 1984; Sun and Ganders 1986, 1988).
In the melittophilous Uvaria concava and in Unonopsis species this strict protogynous dichogamy without overlapping of the pistillate and staminate stages is suspended.
There is no dichogamy in the species as the anthers released pollen as soon as the flower opened.
Movements of floral organs involved in herkogamy and dichogamy are restricted to the symmetry plane.
0900 hours until 1900 hours (partial dichogamy) with both structures well separated.
Intraspecific surveys of mating system variation among populations have demonstrated associations between levels of outcrossing and a variety of demographic and genetic factors including flower color (Horovitz and Harding 1972), degree of dichogamy (i.e., temporal separation of sexual function within flowers [Vasek and Harding 1976, Schoen 1982]), plant density (Farris and Mitton 1984, Wolff et al.
Factors such as dichogamy (temporal separation of sexual functions within flowers) and pollinator directionality (movement of pollinators along inflorescences) may produce such differences in the mating environment of flowers (Darwin 1877; Pellmyr 1987; Brunet 1990).
Self-pollination can be favored by cleistogamy, chasmogamy and self-compatibility, while cross pollination can be favored by dichogamy, herkogamy and self-incompatibility (Frankel & Galun, 1977).
nervosa presents dichogamy and it could be that abortion is a consequence of self-incompatibility rather than herbivore damage alone.