avenae, with winter emergence of juveniles and a summer-autumn diapause
An obligatory characteristic of univoltine species is a long diapause
period during certain development phases.
Thus, the importance of the diapause
in the zooplankton population dynamics of many species has also been increasingly recognised.
Storage of insects can be achieved by holding them either in diapause
or non diapause
conditions under low temperatures (Nordlund and Morrison,
Specific protein related to adult diapauses
in the leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea.
Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, overwinters in mature larva diapause
. However, little is known about the physiological explanation for diapause
development in this pest.
This arrested development is followed by diapause
, in which development is arrested, metabolic activity is greatly reduced, and the resistance to severe physiological stress is high (Drinkwater and Crowe, 1987; Liang and Macrae, 1999).
We did this to ensure that flies in deep diapauses
or with two-year life cycles had adequate time to eclose.
In the cold months, the pupal stage may last several months, causing the pupa to go into diapauses
. The adults appear from the pupae close to the surface of the tree whilst the exterior weather causes them to break diapauses
for a long term storage of Aphidius matricariae.
Annual fish are unique in the fact that they develop their eggs very slowly and can go up through to three diapauses
, depending on genetic and environmental factors (Myers 1952; Wourms 1972).
filipjevi did not show any diapauses
as the juveniles hatched immediately at the beginning of the winter wheat growing period.