PON1 decreases lipid peroxide accumulation in LDL due to its antioxidant ability against hydroperoxides thus reduce LDL and phospholipid oxidation, Thus, PON1 may be involved against atherosclerosis protection.1 Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a life-threatening chronic disease associated with about 10% death episodes in adults.2 DM is leading risk factor for development of coronary heart diseases and mortality if not properly managed.3 In recent meta-analysis study that involved 35 studies worldwide, PON1 has been shown to decrease in DM and to be associated with the risk of diabetic macroangiopathy
and microangiopathy.4 In addition, in another meta-analysis, PON1 polymorphisms have been shown to play an important role in the susceptibility of diabetic macroangiopathy
There have been many studies concerning diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and its association with diabetic macroangiopathy
Reduced [[beta].sub.2]GPI Was Elevated at Early Stage of Diabetic Macroangiopathy
but Decreased at the Late Stage.
Thus DDD may delay the progression of diabetic macroangiopathy
(DM) has some peculiar aspects: frequent coexistent coronary disease , longitudinal tunica media calcification, frequent endovascular occlusions below the knee, and collateral vase rarefaction [3, 4].
Free radicals and oxidative stress are found to be responsible for the development of diabetic macroangiopathy
It is likely that CIMT reflects the earliest changes in diabetic macroangiopathy
Noninvasive techniques are widely used to estimate the stage of atherosclerotic changes and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a useful marker of diabetic macroangiopathy
as well as the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with impaired renal function .