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Pharmacologic class: Monosaccharide
Therapeutic class: Carbohydrate caloric nutritional supplement
Pregnancy risk category C
Prevents protein and nitrogen loss; promotes glycogen deposition and ketone accumulation (through osmotic diuretic action)
Injection: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%
Oral gel: 40%
Tablets (chewable): 5 g
Indications and dosages
➣ Insulin-dependent hypoglycemia
Adults and children: Initially, 10 to 20 g P.O., repeated in 10 to 20 minutes if needed based on blood glucose level; or 20 to 50 ml by I.V. infusion or injection of 50% solution given at 3 ml/minute. Maintenance dosage is 10% to 15% solution by continuous I.V. infusion until blood glucose level reaches therapeutic range.
Infants and neonates: 2 ml/kg of 10% to 25% solution by slow I.V. infusion until blood glucose level reaches therapeutic range
➣ Calorie replacement
Adults and children: 2.5%, 5%, or 10% solution given through peripheral I.V. line, with dosage tailored to patient's need for fluid or calories; or 10% to 70% solution given through large central vein if needed (typically mixed with amino acids or other solution)
• Varicose veins
• Insulin-secreting islet-cell adenoma
• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Hyperglycemia, diabetic coma
• Heart failure
Use cautiously in:
• renal, cardiac, or hepatic impairment; diabetes mellitus.
• Use aseptic technique when preparing solution. Bacteria thrive in high-glucose environments.
☞ Infuse concentrations above 10% through central vein.
• Don't infuse concentrated solution rapidly, because doing so may cause hyperglycemia and fluid shifts.
☞ Never stop infusion abruptly.
CNS: confusion, loss of consciousness
CV: hypertension, phlebitis, venous thrombosis, heart failure
GU: glycosuria, osmotic diuresis
Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hypervolemia, hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalances, hyperosmolar coma
Respiratory: pulmonary edema
Skin: flushing, urticaria
Other: chills, fever, dehydration, injection site reaction, infection
Drug-drug. Corticosteroids, corticotropin: increased risk of fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Drug-diagnostic tests. Glucose: increased level
☞ Monitor infusion site frequently to prevent irritation, tissue sloughing, necrosis, and phlebitis.
• Check blood glucose level at regular intervals.
• Monitor fluid intake and output.
• Weigh patient regularly.
• Assess patient for confusion.
• Teach patient how to recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
• Provide instructions on glucose self-monitoring.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.
d-glu·cose (G, Glc),(glū'kōs),
dextroseAn older term for d-glucose.
dextroseGlucose. A DEXTROROTARY sugar.
Patient discussion about dextrose
Q. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose? I am diabetic with type 2 NIDDM. My colleague with the same NIDDM type2 has a better glycemic control than me. He follows strict diet. He prefers fructose sugar and avoids other sugar as much as possible. He suggested me the same. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose?
Q. When will I have the Glucose Tolerance Test? I am pregnant and wanted to know when I need to have the Glucose Tolerance Test and what is the test like.
Q. What Do my Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results Mean? I had an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test last week. I am 26 weeks pregnant. The results I got are 132 mg/dL. What does this mean?