litchii, the developmental threshold temperatures ([degrees]C) and accumulated temperatures (degree-d) were: egg (14.3 [degrees]C, 66.7 degree-d), larva (14.8 [degrees]C, 31.7 degree-d), protonymph (14.1 [degrees]C, 31.1 degree-d), deutonymph
(13.0 [degrees]C, 36.1 degree-d), and entire generation (14.7 [degrees]C, 172.4 degree-d) (Table 3).
PORTUGAL: 3 female (DEUA, MNCN, MCNB), 1 tritonymph, 1 deutonymph
(DEUA), same locality, 30 December 2009, A.S.P.S.
This genus has been previously reported in phoretic association with wood boring beetles (Cerambycidae, Elateridae and Pyrochroidae) found in deutonymph
stage under the elytra of beetles (Womersley 1954; Chant 1961; Kinn 1984).
After the larvae eclosion, the duration, in days, of each mite developmental stage was observed: larvae, protonymph, deutonymph
, adult-egg period, and the longevity of males and females.
The life cycle of water mites is complex and includes the egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph
, tritonymph, and adult.
The three nymphal instars are termed protonymph, deutonymph
, and tritonymph and can be easily recognized by the unique number of trichobothria of each stage .
Up until now, 23 species have been described in this group, one of which is known only from the deutonymph
The mean durations of larval, protonymph, deutonymph
of female and male stages were 1.10+-0.07, 0 1.02+-0.09 days; 1.10+-0.05, 0 1.07+-0.05 days; 1.03+-0.03, 0 0.96+-0.03 days respectively.
Immediately after moulting of the deutonymphal stage, the males were fopund achively wandering on the surface of the tepals in search of females or quiescent female deutonymphs
. (When it found a female deutonymph
in the quiescent stage it settled very close to it and waited for its moulting and also helping to cast off the moulting skin.
Snake mites have a five-stage life cycle: egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph
, and adult.
represented the last instar before attaining the adult status.