Another important argument of the determinist
perspective is that human society is understood as developing first from the primal division between the sexes, with the inevitable attraction between male and female then becoming an impetus for creation of society.
As far as the physical, inanimate world is concerned, the determinist
position has been seriously challenged by the discovery of indeterminacy at the level of subatomic particles.
It is common practice for determinists
, when providing examples of human choices, to use these types of examples.
In the view of hard determinists
, if we are not responsible for the origination of our wills and our wills causally determine only one possible outcome, then our wills, although influencing final outcomes, are not truly free.
Contemporary biologists have spelled out the implications of the determinist
For a determinist
, one and only one outcome is possible: in that sense, time is closed.
We are witnessing implications of the determinist
approach today in social work as the privatization movement encourages managers to define success, for example, primarily in terms of outcomes based on technological choices (Karger & Stoesz, 1998), but not to choose to reject what may be, in the long run, wasteful consumption of technology to begin with.
The second set is composed of those he would consider to be "environmental determinists
," like Deep Ecologists.
Unlike the social determinists
, as his ground-breaking article on the well-ordered police state indicates, Raeff ultimately came to believe that, in Russia as in the West, the state, not society, was responsible for initiating those social, economic, and intellectual changes that led society to play so important a role in the modern world.
To do so he cuts a dangerous deal with His Kurtzness: Genetic determinists
may slash remedial and affirmative action programs for heady subjects like math, if ameliorists like himself can educate America's heart.
Interestingly, it seems that cultural determinists
defend their positions as dogmas with the same passion that disability professionals defend their taxonomies of disabilities and therapeutic interventions.
We have always done so with a critical eye, believing neither the enthusiasm of technological determinists
nor the doubt of skeptics.