DNA fragmentation index: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine
triphosphate (dUTP) In Situ DNA nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay was performed with a slight modification of sperm suspension after density gradient separation as previously described (10).
Terminal deoxytransferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine
triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was applied to monitor the measure of DNA fragmentation due to apoptosis (figure 3).
Thymidine phosphorylase is required for the normal metabolism of the metabolites thymidine and deoxyuridine
and in its absence these metabolites accumulate in the body causing damage to the mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell.
Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) has the isogenous domain uracil-DNA glycosylase family 4 (IPR005122 and IPR005273), which hydrolyzes the N-glycosidic bond of deoxyuridine
in DNA to initiate DNA repair after lesioning in viruses, bacteria, archaea, yeast, mice, and humans.
Caption: FIGURE 8: Structures of syn 8-furyl-dG (1); 8-(4-cyanophenyl)guanine (2); anti 8-vinyl-benzothienyl-dG (3); 8- acetylphenylguanine (4); 8vinyl-acetylphenylguanine (5); 8-benzothienylguanine (6); 8-(pyren-1-yl)guanine (7); 2'- aminopurine (8); 5-nitroindole (9); and 5-furyl-2'deoxyuridine
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transference-mediated biotinylated deoxyuridine
triphosphate nick end labeling technique (TUNEL) was adopted to detect intestinal villus apoptosis according to the protocol of TUNEL Detection System (Wuhan Boster Biochemical Techniques Co.
The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine
triphosphate nick-end labelling method was used to evaluate neuronal apoptosis.
It is worth mentioning that in the beginning of PCR the first nucleotides, incorporated in a created strand of DNA, are deoxyuridine
nucleotides with 5' radical groups.
The PCR mixture consisted of SYBR[R] Green PCR Master Mix, which includes DNA polymerase, SYBR[R] Green I Dye, deoxynucleotide triphosphates including deoxyuridine
triphosphate, PCR buffer, 10 pmol forward and reverse primers, and cDNA of samples in a total volume of 20 [micro]L.
Folate is an essential nutrient acting as methyl donor for conversion of deoxyuridine
monophosphate (dUMP)to deoxythymidine monophosphate required for DNA synthesis and repair.
Mutations are heritable changes in the DNA, can be either naturally occurring or man-made, and form the basis of much genetic variation , there are three main types of mutation: Substitution, Insertion and Deletion, mutagen is distinguished into chemical mutagen such as 5-bromo- deoxyuridine
, colchicine and 2, 4 Dinitroaniline  and, physical mutagen such as UV, X-radiation and Gamma rays [27,28] and biological mutagen such as Helicobacter pylori bacterium .
In folate pathway mechanism deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) (dTMP) is produced from deoxyuridine
monophosphate (dUMP) by oxidation of tetrahydrofolate to dihydrofolate catalysed by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) (Hyde 2005; Abali et al.