Cleavage of the glycosidic-linkage and associated rearrangement reactions releases the following sugar residues: hexose, glucose or galactose, deoxyhexose
, rhamnose, pentose, xylose or arabinose, and glucuronic acid .
In contrast, individuals in the highest tertile of a deoxyhexose sugar (e.g., anhydro-glucitol, deoxygalactose, or deoxyglucose) had ORs of 0.23 (95% CI 0.07-0.72) and 0.23 (0.08-0.65) in the first and second substudy, respectively.
Interestingly, we also observed an inverse association of deoxyhexose sugars (e.g., anhydro-glucitol, deoxygalactose, deoxyglucose) with T2D.
Importantly, the deoxyhexose sugar and the above sugar alcohol displayed only poor correlations with glucose and other biomarkers of T2D-risk ([r.sub.s] [less than or equal to] [absolute value of 0.2]) (Table 2).
Specifically, sugar alcohols, deoxyhexose sugars, and the ether glycerophospholipids PC(O-20/O-20) and LysoPC(dm16:0) were not covered by the previous targeted approach and were all inversely related to T2D in this study.
Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose
, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected.
The incremental residue masses for the commonly found residues are 162 amu for a hexose (Hex), 146 amu for a deoxyhexose
(deoxyHex), 203 amu for an N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc), and 291 amu for N-acetylneuraminic acid.
The absorption band at 2578 [cm.sup.-1] can be assigned to the C-H stretching of methyl or methylene groups, usually present in hexoses like glucose or galactose, or deoxyhexoses
like rhamnose or fucose .