The corrosion numbers were similar for the deoxidation
and conversion-coating processes.
The experimental results show that melting of the investigated materials is accompanied by denitriding of the metal (denitriding is intensive in the deoxidation
period of the preliminary stage, and only slight in the final stage).
The solidus was below that of the leaded alloy but higher than the lead/bismuth free alloys, The deoxidation
of the Cu-Bi alloy appeared to reduce the solidification range by approximately 10.8[degrees]F (6[degrees]C).
Figure 4 shows an example of estimated size distributions of inclusion particles in clusters in stainless steel samples taken from the melt at different holding times after Al deoxidation
. The inclusion particles in the clusters were investigated by SEM after extraction with bromine-methanol and filtration, as described in Section 2.1.
of the slag with the aluminium powder resulted in the complete pickup of titanium and aluminium from the initial metal (Table 2).
The lower need for aluminum deoxidation
certainly indicates there is less oxygen being introduced to the metal.
The most suitable deoxidation
element for the investigated steels is aluminium.
Alloys-CaSIBa, CaSi, FeAl and FeSiZr
The nitrogen content continues to decrease even after introduction of the deoxidation
After four months in operation, the SPAL process at Quality Castings further improved crucible life by another 30%, reduced silicon-titanium deoxidation
material by 55% and led to a 25% reduction in welding rework due to improved surface finish.
In ferrous metallurgy, titanium is used as an alloying element of steel for reducing the grain size and as a deoxidation
agent, for reducing the carbon content of stainless steel, and also in many other branches and applications.
with aluminium melting is carried out in argon, and in deoxidation
in vacuum with carbon or hydrogen.