Central to any such discussions must be the apparent conflicts between the generally higher dates proposed by the scientific methods, principally radiocarbon and dendrochronology
, and the significantly lower archaeologically and historically determined dates; these discrepancies need to be addressed seriously and openly and resolved by reason alone.
And to the layperson, dendrochronology
means counting the rings of a tree when it is cut horizontally to determine its age because a tree grows one ring for each year of life.
Clues for dendrochronology
from studies of wood structure and function.
: exploring tree-rings of Pinus oocarpa in Eastern Guatemala (Master's thesis).
"To date a building exactly one has to turn to the science of dendrochronology
or tree-ring dating.
Dr Moinuddin, professor of Indiana University Bloomington, USA, described the 'Dendrochronology
and its Importance in Pakistan'.
From the first survey and excavation of sites by the NTS in 1993, the full range of survey and excavation techniques has been used, including dendrochronology
and radiocarbon dating in the scientific examination of artefacts.
Key words: dendrochronology
; climate; forest history; moisture; palaeoclimate; ring-width; white spruce; Yukon
, tree-ring science, focuses on assigning these annual increments of growth to the precise calendar year in which they were formed and on interpreting the short- and long-term growth patterns found in woody plants.
We learn that Prague castle was reconstructed in stone and that dendrochronology
is important for dating the foundations of castles and towns.
Samples have been taken from English Heritage's Belsay Castle for dendrochronology
examination - the science of dating events and environmental change by using patterns of annual growth rings in timber.