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The enzymatic removal of methyl groups.
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Iron, together with 2-oxoglutarate and oxygen, is an essential cofactor for the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of proteins that hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidize to 5-carboxylcytosine and 5-formylcytosine, which have all been suggested to be precursors for both active and passive DNA demethylation (Bhutani et al.
However, doing the same thing with mice lacking Gadd45b did not result in demethylation, suggesting that the gene was indeed required for demethylation.
1] for CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9] or no detectable 13-O-tacrolimus demethylation activity (CYPlA2; data not shown).
Epigenetic drugs such as sodium butyrate show antidepressantlike effects in preclinical studies, and their efficacy is proposed to be mediated by facilitating demethylation and thereby enhancing specific expression of key genes involved in mood or memory.
Synergy of demethylation and histone deacetylase inhibition in the re-expression of genes silenced in cancer.
In cases of acute myeloid leukemia and glioblastoma, the IDH1/2 mutation results in the formation of 2-OH-glutarate, which is a competitive inhibitor of [alpha]-KG-dependent processes, especially demethylation of histones (Turcan et al.
the demethylation of the tetrachlorvinphos in resistant houseflies (11) and O-dearylation pathway, where glutathione reacts with the leaving group, e.
These alterations were achieved by hydroxylation on C12; demethylation on C13, C15, and C31; succination of C24 and C32; and addition of an oxime group on C22.
5-hmC is an oxidative product of 5-mC that appears to participate in several active DNA demethylation pathways.
In plants, one of the major sources of methanol pectin demethylation in the cell, this volatile organic compound exits leaves via stomata [10], thus it is obvious that plant tissues metabolize methanol.
Demethylation of a hypermethylated P15/INK4B gene in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome by 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) treatment.