Moreover, intracellular NE and MPO migrate to the nucleus through the division of the neutrophil nuclear membrane, where they partially degrade specific histones and promote chromatin decondensation.[sup] In addition, the citrullination of histones induced by peptidylarginine deiminases
4 (PAD4) further promotes chromatin decondensation.[sup] However, the precise mechanisms that lead to PAD4 activation in this process remain largely unknown.
The targets for ACPA are citrullinated peptides, that is, peptides that underwent posttranslation conversion of arginine to citrulline residues catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases
Citrullination results from the conversion of arginine onto citrulline by the enzyme peptidyl arginine deiminases (PAD), and this is the major crucial posttranscriptional modification associated to selfantigen recognition in rheumatoid arthritis .
gingivalis expresses an enzyme with amino deiminase activity that converts C-terminal arginine to citrulline, similar to the one involved in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.
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Citrullination is the posttranslational modification of arginine into citrulline by peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) .
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major causative pathogen of periodontitis and expresses its own unique enzyme, Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), which has PAD activity and catalyzes citrullination .
This catalytic pathway involves the activity of peptidylarginine deiminases
(PADs), which induce a hydrolytic reaction in arginine that results in protein citrullination.
Environmental stress may promote posttranslational modifications of proteins including citrullination via peptidylarginine deiminases