with large trees native to western Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, is an exception, having 3-winged fruits that dehisce
into three valves as well illustrated by Leenhouts (1956).
in late August-early September releasing wind-dispersed seeds.
Once anthers began to dehisce
, polyads were also collected: the numbers increased as dehiscence took place, and then decreased as they were removed by pollinators.
When fruits mature in early October through November the capsules turn black and dehisce
They flower in the first weeks after snow melt and senesce and dehisce
seeds prior to the majority of bear activity, which occurs in these meadows from mid-August into October (avalanche chutes are not included in our study).
Plants observed in the field or cultivated in the greenhouse require no hand pollination to achieve nearly 100% fruit set; anthers dehisce
within the bud of a flower before it opens.
These cupules are usually armed with spines but dehisce
at maturity to expose and release the nut.
After collection, mature fruits of these two species were placed in ambient laboratory conditions for several days to allow them to dry and dehisce
During the 3-5 d long male phase, one to two anthers, out of a total of six, dehisce
Anthers failed to dehisce
and only 12% of pollen stained using KI.
In warm weather and at high atmospheric and soil humidity, anthers dehisce
faster with as few as 45 to 50% fertile pollen grains produced as compared with >65% fertile grains found in dehisced anthers under normal weather conditions (De Vries, 1971).
By midsummer, flowers develop into large ([approximately] 3-6 cm long) legumes, from which seeds dehisce
explosively in late summer.