degenerative joint disease

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Related to degenerative joint disease: Degenerative disc disease


a noninflammatory degenerative joint disease marked by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins, and changes in the synovial membrane. Primary osteoarthritis, as part of the normal aging process, is most likely to strike the joints that receive the most use or stress over the years. These include the knees, the joints of the big toes, and those of the lower part of the spine. Another common form of osteoarthritis affects the distal joints of the fingers; this form usually occurs in women. Called also degenerative joint disease.

Symptoms vary from mild to severe, depending on the amount of degeneration that has taken place. Osteoarthritis is caused by disintegration of the cartilage that covers the ends of the bones. As the cartilage wears away, the roughened surface of the bone is exposed, and pain and stiffness result. In severe cases the center of the bone wears away and a bony ridge is left around the edges. This ridge may restrict movement of the joint. Osteoarthritis is less crippling than rheumatoid arthritis, in which two bone surfaces may fuse, completely immobilizing the joint.

Treatment is aimed at preventing crippling deformities, relieving pain, and maintaining motion of the joint; see also treatment of arthritis.
Osteoarthritis. Schematic presentation of the pathologic changes in osteoarthritis. Fragmentation and loss of cartilage denude the subchondral bone, which undergoes sclerosis and cystic change. Osteophytes form on the lateral sides and protrude into the adjacent soft tissues, causing irritation, inflammation, and fibrosis. From Damjanov, 2000.


(os'tē-ō-ar-thrī'tis), [MIM*165720] This word is a misnomer in that the dominant pathologic process is degeneration rather than inflammation.
Arthritis characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, either primary or secondary to trauma or other conditions, which becomes soft, frayed, and thinned with eburnation of subchondral bone and outgrowths of marginal osteophytes; pain and loss of function result; mainly affects weight-bearing joints, is more common in old people and animals.

degenerative joint disease

degenerative joint disease

degenerative joint disease

Osteoarthritis, see there.


Arthritis characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, which becomes soft, frayed, and thinned with eburnation of subchondral bone and outgrowths of marginal osteophytes; pain and loss of function result; mainly affects weight-bearing joints, is more common in women, the overweight, and in older people.
Synonym(s): degenerative joint disease, hypertrophic arthritis, osteoarthrosis.

Degenerative Joint Disease

DRG Category:461
Mean LOS:7.7 days
Description:SURGICAL: Bilateral or Multiple Major Joint Procedures of Lower Extremity With Major CC
DRG Category:483
Mean LOS:3.5 days
Description:SURGICAL: Major Joint and Limb Reattachment Procedure of Upper Extremity With CC or Major CC
DRG Category:553
Mean LOS:5.6 days
Description:MEDICAL: Bone Disease and Arthropathies With Major CC

Degenerative joint disease (DJD), or osteoarthritis, is a nonsystemic, noninflammatory, progressive disorder of movable joints that is associated with aging and accumulated trauma. It is characterized by ulceration of articular cartilage that leaves the underlying bone exposed. Irritation of the perichondrium (the membrane of fibrous connective tissue around the surface of cartilage) and periosteum (the fibrous membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces) causes a proliferation of cells at the joint margins. Extensive hypertrophic changes produce bony outgrowths or spur formations that expand into the joint, causing considerable pain and limited joint movement when they rub against each other.

Idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA), or primary DJD, can occur unilaterally in one or more joints and is usually associated with wear and tear of the hand, wrist, hip, and knee joints. More than half of all persons over age 65 have evidence of idiopathic OA. Progressive joint deterioration occurs because of age-related changes to collagen and proteoglycans. As a result, joint cartilage has decreased tensile strength and reduced nutrient supply. DJD is related to trauma in one or two joints, particularly the knees. The major weight-bearing joints, the cervical spine, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hand are most often affected. The course of the disease is slow and progressive, without exacerbations and remissions. Patients may experience limitations that range from minor finger discomfort to severe disability of the hip or knee joints.


Specific causes of DJD are not known, although some predisposing factors have been identified. Aging, obesity, and familial tendencies are known risk factors. Other risk factors include joint injuries, bleeding into the joint, joint abnormalities, and excessive joint use, as in certain occupations such as high-impact sports, construction work, and dance.

Genetic considerations

DJD is a complex disorder combining the effects of multiple genes and environment, but the genetic component may be significant. Identical twins have been found to have five times the risk of developing severe OA in the knee or hip than the nonidentical twins with which they were contrasted.

Gender, ethnic/racial, and life span considerations

Symptoms of DJD generally begin after age 40 and are more common in women than in men after age 55. Idiopathic OA affects all races and ethnicities but is more prevalent in Native Americans than other groups. Researchers have found that Black/African American people have more radiographic knee changes than other groups. Women have OA of the distal interphalangeal joints of the hand and the knee joints more frequently than do men, but OA of the hip is more common in men than in women.

Global health considerations

In Europe, more people report long-standing problems with their bones and joints that they do with hypertension, headaches, depression, or asthma. Prevalence is highest in Spain, Sweden, and the Netherlands. Few data are available internationally, but OA of the knee is common as people age in China.



Establish a history of deep, aching joint pain or “grating” joint pain during motion. Determine if the pain intensifies after activity and diminishes after rest and which joints are causing discomfort. Ask if the patient is taking medication for pain and, if so, how much and how often. Ask if the patient feels stiff upon awakening. Determine the relationship of the patient’s stiffness to activity or inactivity. Ask if the joints ache during weather changes. Establish a history of altered gait contractures and limited movement. Determine whether the patient has had a severe injury in the past or has worked at an occupation that may have put stress on the weight-bearing joints, such as construction work or ballet dancing. Ascertain whether a family history of OA exists.

Physical examination

The most common symptoms are joint pain and reduced mobility. Observe the patient’s standing posture and gait. Note any obvious curvature of the spine or shuffling gait, which are indicators of limited joint movement. Note if the patient uses a cane or walker. Determine the patient’s ability to flex, hyperextend, and rotate the thoracic and lumbar spine. For a patient with lower back pain, place the patient in a supine position, raise the leg, and have the patient dorsiflex the foot. Intensified pain may indicate a herniated disk; if this occurs, defer the examination and report these findings to the physician. Otherwise, have the patient stand, stabilize the pelvis, and rotate the upper torso 30 degrees to the right and to the left. Support the patient if necessary and ask her or him to bend over from the waist as far as is comfortable. Then ask the patient to bend backward from the waist. Ask the patient to stand up straight and bend to each side. Note the degree of movement the patient is capable of in each maneuver.

Determine the patient’s ability to bend the hips. Do not perform this assessment if the patient has had a hip prosthesis. Ask the patient to stand and extend each leg backward with the knee held straight. Have the patient lie on the back and bring each knee up to the chest. Assess internal and external rotation by having the patient turn the bent knee inward and then outward. Have the patient straighten the leg and then adduct and abduct it. Again, note the degree of movement. Listen for crepitus and observe for pain while the joint is moving.

If DJD is advanced, flexion and lateral deformities of the distal interphalangeal joints occur. Inspect any nodes for redness, swelling, and tenderness. Observe the patient’s hands for deformities, nodules, erythema, swelling, and asymmetry of movement. Grasp the hands and feel for sponginess and warmth. Observe for muscle wasting of the fingers. Ask the patient to extend, dorsiflex, and flex the fingers. Assess for radial and ulnar deviation. Finally, have the patient adduct and abduct the fingers. Ask the patient about the degree of pain during each of these movements.


If the patient has had the disease for some time, explore how it has affected his or her life and how well he or she is adapting to any lifestyle changes. Many elderly patients look forward to retirement and leisure and become depressed about the prospect of pain and limited movement. Trauma from occupational or accidental injuries leaves many individuals unable to work.

Diagnostic highlights

TestNormal ResultAbnormality With ConditionCondition
X-raysNormal structure of bones and jointsJoint deformity with deterioration of articular cartilage and formation of reactive new bone at articular surfaceJoint disease leads to tissue destruction, scarring, and laying of new bone

Other Tests: Serum calcium, serum albumin, ionized calcium, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scan

Primary nursing diagnosis


Pain (chronic) related to joint irritation and destruction


Comfort level; Pain control behavior; Pain level; Symptom control behavior; Symptom severity; Well-being


Pain management; Analgesic administration; Cutaneous stimulation; Heat or cold application; Touch; Exercise therapy; Progressive muscle relaxation

Planning and implementation


Initial medical treatment consists of prescribing pharmacologic therapy. An appropriate ongoing exercise program, which includes teaching proper body mechanics, is prescribed by the physical therapist. Therapy may include the use of moist heat in the form of soaks and whirlpools. Hot soaks and paraffin dips may be used to relieve hand pain, and a cervical collar and hand splints may be used for painful joints. A transcutaneous electric nerve stimulator (TENS) may be particularly helpful for vertebral pain relief. The physical therapist teaches the patient to use a walker and cane if indicated. Occasionally, the patient needs to learn to manage activities of daily living in the home with the help of assistive technical aids. If considerable help is required in learning these skills, the occupational therapist becomes part of the team effort.

Surgical treatment may be undertaken to restore joint function when conservative treatment is ineffective. Patients who are in relatively good physical and mental condition may be candidates for joint reconstructive surgery (arthroplasty). Other surgical procedures include débridement, to remove loose debris within a joint, and osteotomy, which involves cutting the bone to realign the joint and shift the pressure points to a less denuded area of the joint. An osteotomy requires internal fixation with wires, screws, or plates as well as limited joint movement with restricted weight-bearing for a prescribed period of time. Fusion of certain joints (arthrodesis) may be done for the vertebrae and certain smaller joints when other types of procedures have not been successful in eliminating pain. Fusion eliminates movement in the joint and therefore is undertaken as a last resort. Patients who undergo knee replacement surgery are placed on a continuous passive motion machine, which is set to put the patient’s leg through an increasing range of motion and thus prevent scar tissue.

Pharmacologic highlights

Medication or Drug ClassDosageDescriptionRationale
Salicylates and NSAIDsVaries by drugIbuprofen, piroxicam, fenoprofen, phenylbutazone, indomethicin, naproxen if the patient is intolerant to aspirinRelieve pain and decrease inflammation
Prednisone10–150 mg PO qdCorticosteroidsDecreases joint inflammation; used only for severe cases

Other Drugs: Glucosamine and chondroitin have shown some success in reducing the pain; intra-articular injection of high-molecular-weight visco supplements, particularly hyaluronic acid, has been successful in decreasing knee pain with OA. Capsaicin (Dolorac, Capsin, Zostrix) has been used with some success for topically treating pain. Some patients may require opioids to maintain quality of life.


Teach the patient assistive techniques to manage joint pain, such as meditation, biofeedback, and distraction. When the pain is reduced and mobility improves, encourage the patient to assume more responsibility for self-care. Recommend a firm mattress or bed board for lumbar and sacral spine pain. Apply moist heat pads to relieve hip pain and assist with gentle range-of-motion exercises. A total or partial hip replacement requires limited joint movement and restricted weight-bearing depending on the type of prosthesis and surgical approach. Preventing dislocation of the hip prosthesis is extremely important. Keep the patient from lying on the affected side. Place three pillows between the patient’s legs while she or he is sleeping and when you turn the patient. Avoid hip flexion. Keep the cradle boot in place except for a brief period during a bath. Once the patient is allowed up, instruct her or him not to cross the legs while sitting and to avoid wearing shoes and stockings or bending over. After the recovery time is over, teach the patient to wear well-fitting supportive shoes and to replace worn-out heels.

Teach patients who have undergone knee replacement surgery to use a walker or crutches with limited weight-bearing. Advise the patient to use special equipment in the home, such as grab bars, shower seats, and elevated toilet seats. Assist the patient in arranging for a home health nurse to visit and evaluate the patient’s functioning in the home. Assist the patient in arranging ongoing physical therapy in the home. Assist the patient with activities of daily living and teach strategies for managing self-care in the home. Teach the patient to carry out therapeutic regimens, including energy conservation. Suggest the use of a firm mattress and straight-back chairs with armrests. Show the patient how to avoid flexion contractures of the large muscle groups while sleeping and sitting. Teach the patient to avoid putting pillows under the legs while sitting and to avoid sitting in low chairs, which can cause hip flexion.

Evidence-Based Practice and Health Policy

Napolitano, M., Matera, S., Bossio, M., Crescibene, A., Costabile, E., Almolla, J., …Guido, G. (2012). Autologous platelet gel for tissue regeneration in degenerative disorders of the knee. Blood Transfusion, 10(1), 72–77.

  • Innovative treatments for DJD, such as injections with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), may reduce pain and improve joint function and quality of life.
  • A pilot study among 27 patients with DJD who were treated with PRP reported a mean decrease in pain from 8.1 (SD, ± 1.7) pretreatment to 3.4 (SD, ± 2.5) posttreatment using the Numerical Rating Scale.
  • Patients also reported a mean increase in joint function from 36.3 (SD, ± 11.8) pretreatment to 58.9 (SD, ± 9.9) posttreatment using the McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index.

Documentation guidelines

  • Physical findings: Deformed joints, swollen nodes, location and duration of pain, gait, range of motion
  • Response to medication and treatments
  • Ability to perform self-care, degree of mobility

Discharge and home healthcare guidelines

patient teaching.
Ensure that the patient understands the need to rest every hour, space work out over several days, and get at least 8 hours of sleep at night. Ensure that the patient knows whom to call in the event of sudden severe pain (as in a subluxation) or general worsening of the existing condition. Determine whether a home-care agency needs to evaluate the home for safety equipment, such as rails and grab bars, and whether ongoing supervision is required.

Instruct patients on salicylates that they may need periodic laboratory monitoring of liver and kidney functioning and that they should consider drug interactions. Review patient medication regimen for interactions with salicylates. Some drugs that potentially are affected by salicylates include anticoagulants, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, urine acidifiers, furosemide, para-aminobenzoic acid, certain antacids, phenobarbital, methotrexate, sulfonylureas, insulin, beta-adrenergic blockers, spironolactone, and nitroglycerin. Instruct the patient to watch out for the symptoms of bleeding, toxicity, or allergies and to report them to the primary caregiver. Instruct the patient not to take over-the-counter drugs or change the dosage of salicylates without consulting the primary caregiver. Advise the patient to take medications with food or after meals to avoid gastrointestinal discomfort.

The Arthritis Foundation, which publishes information about arthritis, is engaged in a national education program about living with the condition. Help the patient get in touch with this organization by writing to Arthritis Foundation, 1314 Spring Street N.W., Atlanta, GA 30309, or visiting online at


(os'tē-ō-ahr-thrī'tis) [MIM*165720]
Arthritis characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, either primary or secondary to trauma or other conditions, which becomes soft, frayed, and thinned with eburnation of subchondral bone and outgrowths of marginal osteophytes; pain and loss of function result.
Synonym(s): arthrosis (2) .


pertaining to or emanating from degeneration. See also arthropathy, axonopathy, encephalomalacia, degenerative joint disease, myeloencephalopathy, myopathy, osteoarthritis.

avian degenerative joint disease
common in coxofemoral joints of mature male turkeys and meat chickens.
degenerative disease
a disease in which the sole pathogenesis is degeneration; that is without the intervention of other pathogeneses, e.g. inflammation, traumatic injury, neoplasia.
degenerative joint disease
see degenerative joint disease.
degenerative left shift
an increase in immature neutrophilic granulocytes, in excess of mature cells of the series, with a normal or increased white blood cell count. A poor prognostic sign, indicating an inability of the bone marrow to respond adequately to infection.
degenerative myopathy
due to ischemia in well-conditioned cattle which are recumbent for 24 hours or more; affected muscles are pale, the serum creatine phosphokinase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels are markedly elevated for brief periods; commonly the condition is irreversible.
degenerative myopathy of turkeys
degenerative osteoarthritis
probably inherited in cattle; degeneration with erosion of joint surfaces, especially the stifle joint, and especially in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cattle. Lameness develops gradually in adults, accompanied by local muscle atrophy, joint enlargement.
degenerative pannus
see chronic superficial keratitis.


traditionally defined as a finite abnormality of structure or function with an identifiable pathological or clinicopathological basis, and with a recognizable syndrome or constellation of clinical signs.
This definition has long since been widened to embrace subclinical diseases in which there is no tangible clinical syndrome but which are identifiable by chemical, hematological, biophysical, microbiological or immunological means. The definition is used even more widely to include failure to produce at expected levels in the presence of normal levels of nutritional supply and environmental quality. It is to be expected that the detection of residues of disqualifying chemicals in foods of animal origin will also come to be included within the scope of disease.
For specific diseases see under the specific name, e.g. Aujeszsky's disease, Bang's disease, foot-and-mouth disease.

air-borne disease
the causative agent is transmitted via the air without the need for intervention by other medium. See also wind-borne disease.
disease carrier
clinical disease
see clinical (3).
disease cluster
a group of animals with the same disease occurs at an unusual level of prevalence for the population as a whole. The cluster may be in space, with high concentrations in particular localities, or in time, with high concentrations in particular seasons or in particular years.
communicable disease
infectious disease in which the causative agents may pass or be carried from one animal to another directly or indirectly on inanimate objects or via vectors.
complicating disease
one that occurs in the course of some other disease as a complication.
constitutional disease
one involving a system of organs or one with widespread signs.
contagious disease
see communicable disease (above).
disease control
reducing the prevalence of a disease in a population, including eradication, by chemical, pharmaceutical, quarantine, management including culling, or other means or combinations of means.
disease control programs
organized routines specifying agents, administration, time and personnel allocations, community support, funding, participation of corporate or government agencies, animal and animal product disposal.
deficiency disease
a condition due to dietary or metabolic deficiency, including all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients.
degenerative joint disease
see degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis.
demyelinating disease
any condition characterized by destruction of myelin.
disease determinant
any variable associated with a disease which, if removed or altered, results in a change in the incidence of the disease.
egg-borne disease
an infectious disease of birds in which the agent is spread via the egg.
endemic disease
see endemic.
environmental disease control
control by changing the environment, e.g. draining a swamp, ventilating a barn.
epidemic disease
etiological disease classification
diseases arranged in the order of their etiological agents, e.g. bacterial, mycoplasma.
exotic disease
a disease that does not occur in the subject country. Said of infectious diseases that may be introduced, e.g. rabies is exotic to the UK, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is exotic to the USA.
focal disease
a localized disease.
fulminant disease
an explosive outbreak in a group or a rapidly developing, peracute development of a disease in an individual. Called also fulminating.
functional disease
any disease involving body functions but not associated with detectable organic lesion or change.
generalized disease
one involving all or many body systems; often said of infectious diseases in which there is spread via the bloodstream. See also systemic disease (below).
glycogen disease
any of a group of genetically determined disorders of glycogen metabolism, marked by abnormal storage of glycogen in the body tissues. See also glycogen storage disease.
heavy chain disease
hemolytic disease of newborn
see alloimmune hemolytic anemia of the newborn.
hemorrhagic disease of newborn
see neonatal hemorrhagic disease.
disease history
that part of a patient's history which relates only to the disease from which the patient is suffering.
holoendemic disease
most animals in the population are affected.
hyperendemic disease
the rate of infection is steady but high.
hypoendemic disease
the rate of infection is steady and only a few animals are infected.
immune complex disease
see immune complex disease.
infectious disease
one caused by small living organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoan parasites. It may be contagious in origin, result from nosocomial infections or be due to endogenous microflora of the nose and throat, skin or bowel. See also communicable disease (above).
manifestational disease classification
diseases arranged in the order of their clinical signs, epidemiological characteristics, necropsy lesions, e.g. sudden death diseases.
mesoendemic disease
the disease occurs at an even rate and a moderate proportion of animals are infected.
metabolic disease
see metabolic diseases.
molecular disease
any disease in which the pathogenesis can be traced to a single, precise chemical alteration, usually of a protein, which is either abnormal in structure or present in reduced amounts. The corresponding defect in the DNA coding for the protein may also be known.
multicausal disease
1. a number of causative agents are needed to combine to cause the disease.
2. the same disease can be caused by a number of different agents.
multifactorial disease
see multicausal disease (above).
new disease
disease not previously recorded. May be variants on an existing disease, e.g. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, or escapes from other species, e.g. the Marburg virus disease of humans.
notifiable disease
a disease of which any occurrence is required by law to be notified to government authorities.
organic disease
see organic disease.
pandemic disease
a very widespread epidemic involving several countries or an entire continent.
quarantinable disease
a disease which the law requires to be restricted in its spread by putting the affected animals, farms or properties on which it occurs in quarantine.
reportable disease
see notifiable disease (above).
disease reservoir
any animal or fomite in which an infectious disease agent is preserved in a viable state or multiplies and upon which it may depend for survival.
secondary disease
1. a disease subsequent to or a consequence of another disease or condition.
2. a condition due to introduction of incompatible, immunologically competent cells into a host rendered incapable of rejecting them by heavy exposure to ionizing radiation.
self-limited disease
sex-limited disease
disease limited in its occurrence to one or other sex. See also sex-linked.
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
a disease that can be acquired by sexual intercourse.
slaughter disease control
see slaughter (2).
sporadic disease
occurring singly and haphazardly; widely scattered; not epidemic or endemic. See also sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, sporadic leukosis, sporadic lymphangitis.
storage disease
disease syndrome
systemic disease
sufficiently widespread in the body to cause clinical signs referable to any organ or system, and in which localization of infection may occur in any organ.
disease triangle
interaction between the host, the disease agent, and the environment.
disease wastage
loss of income generated by production of milk, eggs, fiber, or loss of capital value because of diminution in the patient's value.
wasting disease
any disease marked especially by progressive emaciation and weakness.
zoonotic disease
disease capable of spread from animals to humans. See also zoonosis.


the site of the junction or union of two or more bones of the body. See also arthritis. The primary functions of joints are to provide motion and flexibility to the skeletal frame, or to allow growth.
Some joints are immovable, such as certain fixed joints where segments of bone are fused together in the skull. Other joints, such as those between the vertebrae, have extremely limited motion. However, most joints allow considerable motion.
Many joints have a complex internal structure. They are composed not merely of ends of bones but also of ligaments, which are tough whitish fibers binding the bones together; cartilage, which is connective tissue, covering and cushioning the bone ends; the articular capsule, a fibrous tissue that encloses the ends of the bones; and the synovial membrane, which lines the capsule and secretes a lubricating fluid (synovia).
Joints are classified by variations in structure that make different kinds of movement possible. The movable joints are usually subdivided into hinge, pivot, gliding, ball-and-socket, condyloid and saddle joints.
For a complete named list of joints in the body see Table 11.

arthrodial joint
gliding joint.
ball-and-socket joint
a synovial joint in which the rounded or spheroidal surface of one bone ('ball') moves within a cup-shaped depression ('socket') on another bone, allowing greater freedom of movement than any other type of joint. Called also spheroidal joint.
biaxial joint
permits movement around two axes.
cartilaginous joint
one in which the bones are united by cartilage, providing either slight flexible movement or allowing growth; it includes symphyses and synchondroses.
condyloid joint
one in which an ovoid head of one bone moves in an elliptical cavity of another, permitting all movements except axial rotation. Called also condylar joint.
congenital joint disease
see articular rigidity, joint hypermobility, arthrogryposis, contracture.
joint contracture
degenerative joint disease
a disease of the joints of all species and all ages but reaching a particularly high prevalence in pen-fed young bulls in which it is characterized by the sudden onset of lameness in a hindlimb, with pain and crepitus in the hip joint and rapid wasting of the muscles of the croup and thigh. There is a family predisposition to this degenerative arthropathy; it is exacerbated by a diet high in phosphorus and low in calcium and dense in energy so that the bull has a high body weight and is growing fast. The onset is acute and often precipitated by fighting or mating. The disease may not develop until 3 or 4 years of age in bulls that are reared at pasture. Called also coxofemoral arthropathy. See also hip dysplasia.
diarthrodial joint
synovial joint.
joint disease
ellipsoid joint
circumference of the joint is an ellipse with the articular surfaces longer in one direction than the other.
joint enlargement
includes arthritis, arthropathy, rickets.
facet j's
the synovial joints of the vertebral column between the neural arches.
fibrocartilaginous joint
a combination of fibrous and cartilaginous joints. Called also amphiarthrosis. Movement limited and variable.
fibrous joint
one in which the bones are connected by fibrous tissue; it includes suture, syndesmosis and gomphosis.
joint fixation
includes ankylosis, tendon contracture, arthrogryposis.
fixed joint
flail joint
an unusually mobile joint.
fleshy joint
joint fusion
ginglymus joint
see hinge joint (below).
gliding joint
a synovial joint in which the opposed surfaces are flat or only slightly curved, so that the bones slide against each other in a simple and limited way. The synovial intervertebral joints are gliding joints, and many of the small bones of the carpus and tarsus meet in gliding joints. Called also arthrodial joint and plane joint.
hinge joint
a synovial joint that allows movement in only one plane, through the presence of a pair of collateral ligaments that run on either side of the joint. Examples are the elbow and the interphalangeal joints of the digits. The jaw is primarily a hinge joint, but it can also move somewhat from side to side. The carpal and tarsal joints are hinge joints that also allow some rotary movement. Called also ginglymus.
hip joint
the joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone; loosely called hip.
hyaline cartilage joint
see cartilaginous joint (above).
joint hyperextension
joint can be extended beyond the normal position.
joint hypermobility
usually a congenital defect with all joints affected. Degree varies from extreme, in which limbs can be tied in knots and animal unable to stand, to mild, in which the patient is able to walk but the gait is abnormal. There may be additional defects such as pink teeth lacking enamel and dermatosparaxis (hyperelastosis cutis). See also hereditary collagen dysplasia.
knee joint
1. the joint between the femur and tibia, fibula and patella.
2. in large ungulates the compound joint between the radius, ulna, carpus and metacarpus.
joint mouse
fragments of cartilage or bone that lie free in the joint space. See also joint mouse.
osseous joint
inflexible joint composed of bone; called also synostosis.
pivot joint
a joint in which one bone pivots within a bony or an osseoligamentous ring, allowing only rotary movement; an example is the joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae (the atlas and axis).
plane joint
see gliding joint (above).
joint receptors
sensory nerve endings capable of detecting the position or angle of the joint.
saddle joint
the articulating surfaces are reciprocally saddle-shaped and permit movement of all kinds, though not rotation, e.g. interphalangeal joints in the dog.
spheroidal joint
see ball-and-socket joint (above).
synarthrodial joint
a fixed joint.
synovial joint
a specialized form of articulation permitting more or less free movement, the union of the bony elements being surrounded by an articular capsule enclosing a cavity lined by synovial membrane. Called also diarthrosis and diarthrodial joint.
trochoid joint
see pivot joint (above).
uniaxial joint
permits movement in one direction only.

Patient discussion about degenerative joint disease

Q. What are the complications of osteoarthritis? I have been suffering from osteoarthritis for over a year now. What are the complications of this disease?

A. Osteoarthritis, as other chronic arthritic diseases, has a very debilitating influence, due to the great pain people often suffer from. It sometimes becomes impossible to walk or stand up, and thus it lead to less movement, weight gain, development of blood clots and venous stasis. The emotional stress can be very debilitating as well.

Q. What Are the Possible Treatments for Osteoarthritis? My sister is suffering from osteoarthritis. What are the possible treatments for this disease?

A. Dear Garland,
My Mother has had osteoarthritis for about 20years. She has tried numerous things to allieviate the pain she has had. About three months ago, she started taking a natural product for inflammation. She still has osteoarthritis, but the pain has reduced so much that she is now able to do so many things she hasn't been able to do in a long time. She can now put pegs on the clothes line, turn light switches on/off, open bottles. I really feel for yourself and other who have osteoarthritis. I never really understood how debilitating it can be. I hope you tell people that you are in pain. I never knew my mother couldn't do all these things.
Best of luck,

Q. Can knee pain at childhood be connected to osteoarthritis? My mother is suffering from osteoarthritis (OA). She is 72 years old and the OA is a major problem in her life. My son is 10 years old. He has a relapsing knee pain. His pain occurs mostly at day time but can wake him from sleep. The pain is in both legs. Is my son in a risk group for OA?

A. Osteoarthritis is a disease that is most commonly caused by weight gain. The problem is that weigh gain has an important genetic factor. So, it doesn't matter if your son has knee pain right now, he is in a risk group for OA. If your mom is fat, she can start a program to lower her fat rate. I used this program for me. In the beginning it was too hard so cut her some slack!

More discussions about degenerative joint disease
References in periodicals archive ?
A case of Degenerative Joint Disease of a right carpal joint caused by traumatic injury in a cow and its management is reported.
Because owners in the final phase recognized pain returning in their dogs given the placebo, researchers determined the medication is effective in cats with degenerative joint disease, Dr.
The etiology might be of non inflammatory disease conditions which included degenerative joint disease and osteoarthritis, characterised by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of the bone margin and changes in the synovial membrane which might be primary due to aging or secondary due to developmental diseases.
The finding could be the breakthrough experts need to create a drug capable of halting and then reversing the degenerative joint disease.
Newcastle University and Arthritis Research UK have collaborated to spearhead a pounds 6m experimental tissue engineering centre which hopes to regenerate bone and cartilage by using patients' own stem cells to repair any damage caused by the degenerative joint disease.
Newcastle University and Arthritis Research UK are spearheading a pounds 6m experimental tissue engineering centre which hopes to regenerate bone and cartilage by using a patient's stem cells to repair damage caused by the degenerative joint disease.
Degenerative joint disease, such as arthritis, and a misaligned or eroded disk are other possible causes.
The objective of this paper was to systematically search and assess the quality of the literature on the use of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and methylsulfonylmethane, alone or in combination, for the treatment of spinal osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease, and degenerative disc disease.
6) Not all patients with psoriasis and degenerative joint disease have true PsA.
In this short-term study emphasizing individual response, acetaminophen and celecoxib (Celebrex) are virtually indistinguishable in improving pain, stiffness, and function in patients with clinically diagnosed degenerative joint disease.

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