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Table: 1.--Implicit Price Deflators for Computers and for Business Purchases of Office, Computing, and Accounting Machinery
If, as estimated above, computers and semiconductors accounted for around 85 per cent of the slowdown in the decline of the NAICS 334 deflator, and that slowdown accounted for around 38 per cent of the overall drop in manufacturing productivity growth, then as a rough approximation (taking note of the fact that these percentages were computed for somewhat different periods), falls in the rates of decline of the deflators for computers and semiconductors accounted for around 32 per cent of the overall decline in manufacturing productivity growth between the 1990s and the post-2010 period.
The study also compared the authors' data-intensive approach that estimates R&D costs separately for the five specific industries with an approach that uses a common deflator.
Den Haan (2000) found that the correlation of short-horizon forecast errors in the United States are negative or small when real GDP and the GDP deflator measure price and output.
In light of this, we considered four measures of inflation based on four measures of the aggregate price level: 1) the GDP deflator, 2) the price deflator for the nonfarm business sector (NFB), 3) the Consumer Price Index (CPI), and 4) the price deflator for personal consumption expenditures (PCE).
Department of Commerce uses the national price deflator weighted by shares of each sector in the respective states' GSP.
The deflator used in defining the demand for real money balances is given by the index
BEA personal income is deflated by the implicit price deflator for personal consumption expenditures, hereafter referred to as the PCE Deflator.
For the countries covered by the analysis as a whole, the growth differential between the consumption deflator and the value added deflator has been small and depends on the precise measure of the consumption deflator.
The deflators were constructed by BEA in 1985 using annual price indexes for computing equipment that were initially developed by the IBM Corporation.(2) IBM developed four types of price indexes: Matched-model indexes, regression indexes, composite indexes, and characteristics price indexes.
More generally, while price deflators for personal computers (PCs) often are estimated with hedonic techniques, the nexus of innovation has moved beyond PCs to mobile devices and areas that are, perhaps, less visible like navigation equipment (GPS).
(3) Specifically, the current-dollar figures reported by survey respondents are adjusted using implicit price deflators developed for each industry from unpublished detail on current- and constant-dollar nonresidential fixed investment in the national income and product accounts.