Influence of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha on in vitro maturation of cumulus enclosed bovine oocytes in defined medium
It was a great initiative to replace the animal testing with in vitro cell culture methods and now it is time to replace the FBS with chemically defined medium
or with serum from some other source.
* Modified defined medium
(sMSM): after preparing their 0.1X MSM, students may wish to add 0.5 g sucrose per liter.
Effect of glucose and pyruvate on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes in a chemically defined medium
. Theriogenology 70: 1041-1047.
coli DH5a using defined medium
with different concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 in shake flask fermentation
However, a more defined medium
often resulted in extended cell adaption times, reduced growth rates and decreased product titres, all of which negatively impacted on manufacturing costs.
These semiautomated techniques have been used to develop a fully defined medium
(Gauthier et al.
To determine if these cells could give rise to differentiated inner ear cell types, growth factors were withdrawn and culture was continued in a defined medium
. This process resulted in the differentiation of a population of cells that expressed markers characteristic of hair cells, illustrating how embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into hair cells in a stepwise fashion (figure 3).
The media tested included AHS; antibiotic APW; Helisoma defined medium
(HDM: 50% Leibovitz-15 (Gibco), 40.0 mM NaCl, 1.7 mM KCl, 4.1 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], 1.5 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2] 5.0 mM HEPES, 50 [mu]g/ml Gentamicin, 150 [mu]g/ml l-glutamine, pH 7.30-7.40, 143 mOsm); 30% M199 (Gibco, pH 7.20-7.30, 91 mOsm); 5% galactose in AHS; 1.5% CF in AHS; and albumen-gland-conditioned ARS.
A defined medium
by definition only contains factors of known structure, such as recombinant growth factors and hormones, and must exclude complex proteins or hydrolysates (van der Valk et al., 2010).
Ricciardi reported a modified chemically defined medium
to promote the growth of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum groups .
Czermak, "Attachment, growth, and detachment of human mesenchymal stem cells in a chemically defined medium
," Stem Cells International, vol.