: defense, development and application.
Shunyi Zhu of the Institute of Zoology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences along with his colleagues looked at proteins in the scorpions called defensins
, compounds found in many plants and animals that fight bacteria, the Independent reported.
Examples are chitinases and chitinase-like proteins with antifungal activity towards Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani [8, 9], cyclophilin-like proteins with antifungal activities [10, 11], defensins
and defensin-like peptides that inhibit growth of F.
Out of several defensins
(hBDs) known, four have been characterized elaborately and termed as hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3, and hBD-4.
The resulting increase in local 1,25[(OH).sub.2][D.sub.3] and VDR expression creates an intracrine system that increases the oxidative burst potential of monocytes, recruits other immune cells to fight infection, and induces formation of natural antimicrobial peptides--most notably cathelicidins and human defensins
seeds Actinchinin The gold kiwi (52) fruit Information about this protein and its structure as indicated in Protein Data Bank (PDB) included, molecular description DEFENSE-RELATED PEPTIDE 1; classification: antifungal protein; source scientific name: Pisum sativum; family: plant defensins
. The final peptide pattern obtained from multiple alignment led to the structure that its source was from plant, and belonged to defensins
These include cytokines, antimicrobial proteins and peptides, such as defensins
, and trefoil factors .
Neutrophil-derived antiinfective agents Preformed granule Newly synthesised reactive Proteins * oxygen and nitrogen species Bactericidal proteins Superoxide Defensins
(HNP1-4) Hydrogen peroxide LL-37 Hypohalous acids Myeloperoxidase Hydroxyl radical Proteinases (cathepsins, Singlet molecular elastase, proteinase-3) oxygen Secretory phospholipase Nitric oxide [A.sub.2]
Recent studies have detected the expression of antimicrobial proreins--such as lysozymes, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, defensins
, and Toll-like receptors--in the respiratory mucosal epithelium, goblet cells, and glandular epithelium.
detected three small antibiotic peptides, human neutrophil peptides (HNP) -1, -2, and, -3, in the extracts obtained from neutrophil granules and referred to them as defensins
. (5) Subsequently, a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide was identified in the bovine respiratory tracts, and this peptide was named tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP).
Direct inactivation of viruses by human granulocyte defensins
. J Virol 1986; 60: 1068-1074.
For instance, defensins
with distinct structures are produced by humans, other animals and plants (Wong et al.