reptiles, and mammals; defeminization
and masculinization of gastropods,
(2) Androgen excess result in defeminization
. Breast atrophy, loss of sub cutaneous deposits and female contour are common.
A theory based on masculinization and defeminization
of the brain.
There is also some evidence to suggest that females prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, are more likely to identify as bi- or homosexual compared to those females not exposed to DES (Meyer-Bahlburg et al., 1995), presumably as a function of estrogen's role in the defeminization
of the central nervous system.
Testosterone can bring about these effects by masculinization (acquisition of behaviors characteristic of males) and defeminization
(suppression of behaviors characteristic of females).
Androgen excess manifested as hirsutism, virilization and defeminization
as oligo/amenorrhoea in women.
McIntyre's own masculinity is quoted, perhaps as reassurance for the audience that he is still "himself." These details also underscore the defeminization
of the Bride, the social negation associated with masculine attributes.
Vivid examples of this defeminization
protocol are found in Papua New Guinea.
The hypothesis was that, after half a century or more of iconoclasm, unmusicality, and the defeminization
of religion, people were starved for the pleasures that only religion could offer in a presublimated form.
(56) A pioneering, equally influential study of female officers found that they, too, suffered from a kind of double marginality, forced to choose between "defeminization
" and "deprofessionalization": only by relinquishing much of their identity as women could they fully succeed as police officers.
Meera Nanda (2000: 26), for example, provides evidence of the rising defeminization
of offshore work, arguing that "computer-aided manufacture and flexible production techniques are changing the skill requirements and gender composition of workers employed by the apparel and microelectronics industries." Nanda notes that women face the risk of being displaced from the export-oriented sector as men fill the more skilled and better jobs.
As soon as nationalist men overtook the governance of Palestinian territories, and prior to the establishment of a Palestinian State, they encouraged the marginalization of Palestinian women and promoted the "defeminization
" of Palestinian political activity.