decreased cardiac output


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output

 [owt´poot]
the yield or total of anything produced by any functional system of the body. When measuring output for a patient record, the volume of urine, drainage from tubes, vomitus, and any other measurable liquid should be recorded.
cardiac output the effective volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart per unit of time (generally per minute); it usually refers to left ventricle output. It is equal to the stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate. Normal values are 4 to 8 liters per minute.
decreased cardiac output a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which inadequate blood is pumped by the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body. The most obvious causative factors are pathologic changes in the heart's muscle or electrical conduction system, congenital heart defects, electrolyte imbalances (as of calcium or potassium), blood dyscrasias, and chronic pulmonary disease. Factors that could lead to changes in a patient's functional capacities because of decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a type or intensity that the patient cannot tolerate because of diminished oxygen supply, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, obesity, retention of fluid (edema), hypovolemia or hypervolemia, emotional stress, and smoking.
Patient Care. Nursing interventions are planned only after a thorough nursing assessment has been conducted to collect the relevant subjective and objective data. For example, it may be that the patient will need instruction and guidance in limiting sodium intake, reducing caloric intake to lose excess fat and maintain normal body weight, decreasing fat consumption to reduce blood lipid levels, or otherwise striving for dietary management of the problem.
energy output the energy a body is able to manifest in work or activity.
stroke output stroke volume.
urinary output the amount of urine secreted by the kidneys. See also fluid balance.

decreased cardiac output

A state in which the blood pumped by the heart is inadequate to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Cardiac output and tissue perfusion are interrelated. When cardiac output is decreased, tissue perfusion problems will develop. Tissue perfusion also can be impaired when there is normal or high cardiac output, for example, in septic shock.)

CAUTION!

In a hypermetabolic state, although cardiac output may be within normal range, it may still be inadequate to meet the needs of the body's tissues.
See also: output
References in periodicals archive ?
Using information provided by the blood volume monitor, it was believed that the decrease in blood pressure was related to an increase in blood volume, thus leading to the distension of the myocardial walls and decreased cardiac output as described above (see Figure 1).
Renal dysfunction is common, related to decreased cardiac output as well as venous congestion of the kidney from right heart failure.
There has been a suggestion that it could be due to decreased cardiac output. This decreased cardiac output could be due to shifting of blood volume from the central circulation to the splanchnic circulation or to the vasorelaxation of the sphanchnic vessels.
In contrast to 18 normotensive men and women who were long-term practitioners of transcendental meditation, the 14 normotensive control subjects who were observed while resting with eyes-closed showed increased total peripheral resistance and decreased cardiac output and stroke volume, the researchers reported.
Therefore, the obstruction would be enhanced, resulting in decreased cardiac output and cerebral hypoperfusion, which could explain the presenting symptoms of lightheadedness and dizziness.
Ineffective atrial contractions and/or a rapid ventricular response can result in a decreased cardiac output. Slowing of the ventricular rate is a priority for patients with atrial fibrillation.
(1) However, fluid administration may have adverse effects, including decreased cardiac output, and interstitial fluid accumulation which may worsen gas exchange, decrease myocardial compliance and limit oxygen diffusion to tissues (2-5).
As air continues to build up, it may cause a mediastinal shift, decreased cardiac output, and death.