decreased cardiac output
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the yield or total of anything produced by any functional system of the body. When measuring output for a patient record, the volume of urine, drainage from tubes, vomitus, and any other measurable liquid should be recorded.
cardiac output the effective volume of blood expelled by either ventricle of the heart per unit of time (generally per minute); it usually refers to left ventricle output. It is equal to the stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate. Normal values are 4 to 8 liters per minute.
decreased cardiac output a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a state in which inadequate blood is pumped by the heart to meet the metabolic demands of the body. The most obvious causative factors are pathologic changes in the heart's muscle or electrical conduction system, congenital heart defects, electrolyte imbalances (as of calcium or potassium), blood dyscrasias, and chronic pulmonary disease. Factors that could lead to changes in a patient's functional capacities because of decreased cardiac output might include physical exercise of a type or intensity that the patient cannot tolerate because of diminished oxygen supply, ingestion of large meals that place an added workload on the heart, obesity, retention of fluid (edema), hypovolemia or hypervolemia, emotional stress, and smoking.
Patient Care. Nursing interventions are planned only after a thorough nursing assessment has been conducted to collect the relevant subjective and objective data. For example, it may be that the patient will need instruction and guidance in limiting sodium intake, reducing caloric intake to lose excess fat and maintain normal body weight, decreasing fat consumption to reduce blood lipid levels, or otherwise striving for dietary management of the problem.
energy output the energy a body is able to manifest in work or activity.
stroke output stroke volume.
urinary output the amount of urine secreted by the kidneys. See also fluid balance.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
decreased cardiac output
A state in which the blood pumped by the heart is inadequate to meet the metabolic demands of the body. Cardiac output and tissue perfusion are interrelated. When cardiac output is decreased, tissue perfusion problems will develop. Tissue perfusion also can be impaired when there is normal or high cardiac output, for example, in septic shock.)
CAUTION!In a hypermetabolic state, although cardiac output may be within normal range, it may still be inadequate to meet the needs of the body's tissues.
See also: output
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