or more often, they examine the entire institution on thousands of criteria, including faculty qualifications, resources, admission and graduation rates, assessment processes, and curricula.
Using state-level data observed decennially
, from 1840 to 1860, it finds that the states that spent themselves into debt did not advance the development of their railroad networks, but that those that adopted amendments to their state constitutions restricting borrowing, investment, loan guarantees, and the like did.
Variable forms of representation are featured--a president elected nationally for a four-year term, renewable once; senators elected singly from states for six-year renewable terms; representatives elected by decennially
redrawn districts within states for renewable two-year terms; and throngs of state and local executives, legislators, and even judges elected for variable term lengths and limits.
Furthermore, SMD limits the ability of many underreprsented groups to win a seat unless their members constitute a majority of the voters in a district whose lines must be redrawn decennially
. Widespread gerrymandering (Baker 1986) also contributes to the unrepresentativeness of the House because incumbents often are protected by state legislatures which redraw district lines.
Based on the available information about crude death rates and the percentage of the population aged 65 years and over, which is available for the whole country decennially
from 1851 and for Quebec from 1831, Bourbeau and Legare have produced the following table for life expectancy at birth ([e.sub.[o]]) of men and women.
(6) The sample redesign occurs decennially
, when certain cities or other areas enter the sample, and others leave, based on changes in population or other factors.