The effect of pH on the hydrolysis and deamidation
of glutaminyl and asparaginyl residues in peptides and proteins.
03 Da; trypsin as enzyme; up to one missed cleavage allowed; carbamidomethylation as a fixed modification; deamidation
and oxidation as variable modifications.
From a single digest and run, users can gain identity and purity information with 100% coverage in a peptide map; heterogeneity information with ultra-sensitive glycopeptide quantification; and stability information identifying, deamidation
, cyclization and oxidation.
The conversion of protein amide groups to carboxyl groups by deamidation
improves solubility and other physical properties of proteins under mildly acidic conditions.
of gliadin epitopes by transglutaminase enables them to be presented with high affinity by antigen-presenting cells to helper T cells and then B cells, resulting in antibody production against gliadin, transglutaminase 2, and gliadin-transglutaminase complex.
This geometry suggests the presence of charge-modified species that is, those originating from deamidation
, sulfation, acetylation, or glycosylation or glycation, as theoretically predicted and experimentally verified by Pietrogrande et al.
of wheat gliadin by tissue transglutaminase promotes its binding to HLA-DQ2 and its recognition by gut T cells, suggesting a novel mechanism in celiac disease.
Irreversible protein denaturation can also be explained as resulting from deamidation
of aspartic acid (As) and glycine (Gln) residues, cleavage of peptide bonds at As residues, destruction of cysteine (Cys) and cystine residues, and aggregation [22, 26].
Robinson does occasionally publish research articles in an obscure area concerning deamidation
rates of asparagine and glutamine in peptides.
Posttranslational modifications of PRL have also been reported: glycosylation in most species; phosphorylation in rats, bovines and birds; deamidation
in rats, mice, sheep and humans and sulfation in ovine or sheep and buffalo (16).
To improve the solubility of WG in milk replacers, deamidation
by acid or alkali treatments, sulfuric, phosphoric or chlorosulfonic acids, or enzymatic hydrolysis by papain, bromelain, subtilisin, trypsin or pronase have been introduced (Day et al.