In relation to antioxidant capacity, anthraquinone derivates are considered to be one of the major biologically active constituents of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol physcion, and danthron
from the rhizomes of Rheum undulatum L.
Nelson, "Acute mouse and chronic dog toxicity studies of danthron
, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, poloxalkol and combinations," Drug and Chemical Toxicology, vol.
Danthron is another extract of rhubarb, study showing that, at 0.1 [micro]mol/L, 1 [micro]mol/L, and 10 [micro]mol/L of culture medium, dose-dependently promoted the phosphorylation of Adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in both HepG2 and C2C12 cells.
Xu et al., "Danthron activates AMP-activated protein kinase and regulates lipid and glucose metabolism in vitro," Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol.
Stopper, "Genotoxicity of the laxative drug components emodin, aloe-emodin and danthron
in mammalian cells: topoisomerase II mediated?" Mutation Research, vol.371, no.3-4, pp.165-173, 1996.
, an anthraquinone derivative, induces DNA damage and caspase cascades-mediated apoptosis in SNU-1 human gastric cancer cells through mitochondrial permeability transition pores and Bax-triggered pathways.
Recommended reference standards for anthraquinone laxatives consist of Rhein and danthron
. Rhein is the metabolic product of senna and cascara, and its presence in urine indicates ingestion of one of these drugs.
That has only happened three times in the past 25 years: in 1977 with the antimicrobial hexachlorophene, in 1979 with the antihistamine methapyrilene and in 1978 with the laxative danthron
induces DNA damage and inhibits DNA repair gene expressions in GBM 8401 human brain glioblastoma multiforms cells.
That happened in 1977 with the antimicrobial hexachlorophene, two years later with the antihistamine methapyrilene and again in 1987 with danthron
, a laxative.