The diagnostic procedures include lacrimal probing, lacrimal irrigation, dacryocystography
, the Jones dye test, the fluorescein test and radionuclide cystography.
Variations in the diameter of the NLD have been studied in bone specimens and by computerized tomography (CT) (Saxena, 1984; Groessl et al.; Janssen et al.; Shigeta et al.; McCormick & Sloan, 2009; Fasina & Ogbole, 2013; Ramey et al., 2013; Takahashi et al., 2011, 2013; Yong et al., 2014) Obstruction of the NLD can occur anywhere in its trajectory; however, previous studies with dacryocystography
and dacryoendoscopy have determined that in two thirds of patients, the most common site of obstruction is the entrance to its bony portion (62-73 %), and this is not always considered in CT studies (Sasaki et al., 2005; Francisco et al, 2007).
All participants in this study were Koreans who underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations and assessments of the lacrimal drainage system, including tear meniscus height measurements, the fluorescein dye disappearance test (FDDT), the lacrimal syringing test, lacrimal probing, nasal endoscopic examinations, and dacryocystography
Canaliculitis is a condition that can easily be diagnosed with a careful clinical examination, without the need for detailed examinations like dacryocystography
. (3) However, in cases that are uncertain, feeling the presence of dacryoliths in the canaliculus during nasolacrimal duct lavage can aid diagnosis.11 Without correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the condition recurs frequently.
Various studies employed dacryocystography
and computed tomography (CT ) scan imaging.8-11 Although these investigations can provide additional information in few selected cases, but routine use of these investigations are not required in majority of cases.
Failed endoscopic DCR patients underwent dacryocystography
post-operatively which showed blockage of neo-ostium.
Epiphora (watering of eye) or tearing is the most frequent symptom particularly during first year of life along with ocular discharge seen in up to 20% of all normal newborns2 which develops within 6 weeks of birth in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and it is bilateral in 1/3 of cases.3 The dacryocystography
is a simple, safe and standardized diagnostic procedure which, easily and accurately defines these obstructions and is less time consuming and less annoying to the patients with practically no complications.4
The workup included dacryocystography
, an ophthalmologic consultation, and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT).
Presenting symptom and signs, associated craniofacial and ocular anomalies, treatment given and any other investigation such as computerized tomography (CT) dacryocystography
(DCG) were noted.
At the 90th day postinjection, all experimental rabbits then received CT dacryocystography
to clarify the location of the lacrimal passage obstruction site and the extent of the obstruction.
The X-ray dacryocystography
with iodized oil could well develop the size and shape of lacrimal sac, but because the injection of contrast agent adds certain factitious pressure, it would exhibit less sensitivity towards the functional lacrimal duct obstructionand mild lacrimal duct stenosis, and because of the overlapped organs, it would be difficult to display the lacrimal duct structure accurately and clearly (Peter et al, 2009).
Imaging with dacryocystography
or dacryoscintigraphy may provide further information for diagnosis and management.