manifest evidence of oxidative stress in preeclampsia.
129) All gestations with maternal genetic material--PHMs, hydropic nonmolar abortions, and trisomies--show normal p57 protein expression pattern: strong nuclear staining in cytotrophoblasts
, intermediate trophoblasts, intervillous trophoblast islands, and villous stromal cells, while syncytiotrophoblasts are uniformly negative.
Im-munoreactivity for p57KIP2 in cytotrophoblasts
of PHM was 95% in our study.
The trophoblast with maternal origin differentiates into cytotrophoblast
The thickness of cytotrophoblast
and syncytiotrophoblast considerably varies narrowing in the area of fetal blood vessels.
Th2 type cytokines, such as IL-10, are anti-inflammatory cytokines, and act as autocrine inhibitors of cytotrophoblast
invasion in the uterine wall.
Taking the general cells activation regulating mechanism into consideration one might assume that functional reduction and probable death of cytotrophoblast
is provided by the high cytotoxic activity of natural killers, that is one of the missed abortion nosotropic links.
Its etiology, is unknown nowadays despite the existing theories, being the most accepted the theory about the superficial invasion of the cytotrophoblast
in the blood vessel spirals during the placenta formation, giving as a result the preservation of the elastic muscle fibers in the artery and its capacity to respond to different vasoconstrictive agents, anon existing situation in normal pregnancy.
Zhou Y, McMaster M, Woo K, Janatpour M, Perry J, Karpanen T, Alitalo K, Damsky C, Fisher SJ: Vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors that regulate human cytotrophoblast
survival are dysregulated in severe preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.
Although it arrests mitosis in cytotrophoblast
, the syncytiotrophoblast mass may still increase and produce [beta]-hcg.
Hyperglycosylated hCG, which is an hCG variant with additional carbohydrate residues that is produced by cytotrophoblast
cells, (4) is the principal molecule produced in early pregnancy.
Viral antigens were present in the maternal pulmonary system, and virus was detected in placental Hofbauer cells (histiocytes), cytotrophoblast
, fetal lung, circulating mononuclear cells, and liver macrophages (10).