Abbreviations: Adeno 5, adenovirus C subtype 5; BGM, buffalo-green-monkey cells; CA9, coxsackievirus subtype 9; CPE, cytopathogenic effect
; EC50, effective concentration 50; FluA, influenza A virus; FluB, influenza B vims; HEp-2, human epithelial cells; HRV14, human rhinovirus B subtype 14; IC50, inhibitory concentration 50; MDCK, Madin-Darby-Canine-Kidney cells; M.O.I., multiplicity of infection; Para 3, parainfluenza virus type 3; PFU, plaque-forming units; RSV, respiratory syncytial vims.
Briefly, a total of 0.3 mL of virus having 105.31 EID50 was inoculated and the cell culture flasks were incubated at 37oC in the presence of 5% CO2 in a CO2 incubator and observed for cytopathogenic effects
. The culture fluid of each passage of IBH-HPS virus was harvested by three freeze thaw cycles and clarified by centrifugation.
The antiviral activity of oral drops and dry extract was measured with plaque-reduction assays (Cooper 1955) in plaque forming units (PFU) for FluA and pFluA, Para 3, RSV, HRV 14, CA9 or with the analyses of a cytopathogenic effect
(CPE) for Adeno 5.
To exclude presence of non-EV-71 strains in our virus stocks that caused the cytopathogenic effect
in the neutralization assays, we plaque-purified viruses incubated with or without the polyclonal serum from rabbits and a selection of the IVIg batches.
Influence of EPs [R] 7630 on virus-induced cytopathogenic effect
The bottom panel indicates the approximate percentage of cells exhibiting cytopathogenic effects
in cultures at the corresponding intervals after infection.
Although, in most cases, CAV-1 and CAV-2 infections are not difficult to discriminate clinically from each other, they have the same morphological features under the electron microscope and the same cytopathogenic effects
on cell cultures.
"Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects
and virus titres revealed that EPs[R] 7630 at concentrations up to 100 [micro]g/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus.
Routine examination for cytopathogenic effects
using phase-contrast microscopy was performed following Hay's haemadsorption protocol (Hay, 1992).
To measure the inhibitory effect on the viral cytopathogenic effects
(CPE) in cell culture, nebrodeolysin was exposed to different cell cultures that were infected by a variety of DNA and RNA viruses.
Of the 616 samples, 238 induced cytopathogenic effects
in human cells, of which 20 also induced cytopathogenic effects
in L20B cells; the latter samples were confirmed by reverse transcription PCR molecular testing (7) to contain PV strains.