Abbreviations: Adeno 5, adenovirus C subtype 5; BGM, buffalo-green-monkey cells; CA9, coxsackievirus subtype 9; CPE, cytopathogenic
effect; EC50, effective concentration 50; FluA, influenza A virus; FluB, influenza B vims; HEp-2, human epithelial cells; HRV14, human rhinovirus B subtype 14; IC50, inhibitory concentration 50; MDCK, Madin-Darby-Canine-Kidney cells; M.O.I., multiplicity of infection; Para 3, parainfluenza virus type 3; PFU, plaque-forming units; RSV, respiratory syncytial vims.
Briefly, a total of 0.3 mL of virus having 105.31 EID50 was inoculated and the cell culture flasks were incubated at 37oC in the presence of 5% CO2 in a CO2 incubator and observed for cytopathogenic
After occurrence of a cytopathogenic
effect in a culture, the supernatant was harvested and stored at -20[degrees]C for DNA extraction.
We observed a cytopathogenic
effect within 72 hours.
alterations could be due to increased process of lipid peroxidation resulting to increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogenous species (Campos-Pereira et al., 2012; Hussain et al., 2012; 2014).
Viruses contaminationCells were observed by phase-contrast microscopy for cytopathogenic
examination, operation in details was similar to Li et al.
Routine examination for cytopathogenic
effects using phase-contrast microscopy was performed following Hay's haemadsorption protocol (Hay, 1992).
Although, in most cases, CAV-1 and CAV-2 infections are not difficult to discriminate clinically from each other, they have the same morphological features under the electron microscope and the same cytopathogenic
effects on cell cultures.
This could be ascertained with different assays as plaque-reduction assays in plaque forming units (PFU), the analyses of a cytopathogenic
effect (CPE) and with enzyme immunoassays (EL1SA) to determine the amount of newly synthesised virus.
Rearrangement of viral sequences in cytopathogenic
HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 induces the MMP-9 cytopathogenic
factor production that is abolished by inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
We calculated neutralizing titers based on cytopathogenic
effect using the Reed and Muench method and reported them as the reciprocal titers of serum dilutions exhibiting 50% neutralization (9).